SHO 2016


A Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais (SPOSHO) é uma sociedade científica que tem como principais objectivos a promoção da discussão dos diferentes domínios da segurança e higiene ocupacionais (SHO), o desenvolvimento de acções de divulgação e de formação no domínio da SHO, e constitui-se como um espaço de defesa dos interesses comuns dos técnicos desta área da Sociedade, bem como em participar e estabelecer relações com sociedades científicas congéneres, a nível nacional e internacional.

Saiba mais sobre a Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais.


"Experiências de Recuperação e o Stress Ocupacional. Contributos para a diminuição dos riscos psicossociais em contexto laboral"

José Pedro Carvalho Araújo, Fátima Lobo


This research aims to contribute to the reduction of psychosocial risks in the workplace. It is proposed to analyze the potential recovery experiences in active individuals and subject to stress. Thus, this research aims to analyze the two constructs a sample of Portuguese workers (n = 180). Three questionnaires were applied: demographic partner; Recovery Questionnaire questionnaire and the Occupational Stress Questionnaire - General Version. The results show that the working conditions (relationship with supervisors, customers / clients, colleagues, remuneration and career development) and family are predictive strategies on workers to return or not the health levels.

Projeto-Piloto de Controlo do Cumprimento das Condições Operacionais e Medidas de Gestão do Risco

Sofia Barata, Roberto Valadares, Ana Fernandes, Rui Cabrita, Susana Pimpão


The Project “REACH – Exposure Scenarios” is a pilot project on the enforcement of obligations related to extended safety data sheets (e-SDSs), exposure scenarios, risk management measures and operational conditions, developed by the Portuguese Environment and Occupational Health and Safety Inspection Authorities. This multiannual (2014-2016) pilot project has de following goals: compliance check with operational conditions (OC) and risk management measures (RMM) under exposure scenarios (ES), available through the extended safety data sheet (e-SDSs) of chemicals, development of inspection supporting materials and training of the Authorities‘ inspectors and technicians involved. During the preparation phase of the project, in 2014, both inspectors and technicians involved attended training sessions. During the operational phase, which is currently underway, the joint inspection teams apply a check-list developed during the preparation phase, in order to evaluate the companies’ level of compliance with some provisions under REACH, with special incidence on the maintenance of an up to date inventory of chemical substances and the implementation of e-SDS compliance procedures. In this phase (end of 2015), it stands out, as an operational result, the completion of a total of 21 inspection actions, 2 of which to manufacturers and 19 to Downstream Users. In conclusion, at an organizational level, operators are able to implement management measures arising from the REACH regulation since these measures do not imply large investments. It is however noted that it is necessary that operators should have qualified human resources,, particularly in matters related to REACH. Regarding the exposure of workers, there has been some shortcomings in the evaluation of occupational risks resulting from exposure to hazardous chemicals and in the implementation of the protective measures provided in safety and health legislation. However, it appears that, although with a critical view, one should considered that RMM in the ES contribute to determine the protective measures to be implemented following the assessment of occupational risks.

Shift work: changing the implications of the circadian rhythm in the health of workers - Systematic review

Cipriano Almeida, José Augusto Rodrigures dos Santos, Carmen Diniz


The variation of working schedule is a significant change in employment terms, over recent decades. Among the various forms of existing schedules, there is the organization of shift work. In modern society, a growing number of individuals work in shift schedules. Companies turn to shiftwork to ensure the laboring continuity. Workers in such schedules are subject to circadian rhythm disorders. The objective of this review is to analyze the main implications of this type of schedule on health and safety of workers. We have performed a systematic review using the Prisma methodology. A literature search was conducted in the SCOPUS database, through a combination of keywords and restricting papers published between 2009 and 2014. The results show a relationship between work and sleep disturbance, implying an increase of fatigue, and diseases related with the reduction of melatonin and cortisol increasey.

Discussão das medidas de controle de riscos ambientais adotadas, na etapa de pasteurização, por uma fábrica de cerveja

Helyda Karla Barbosa Bernardes, Cícero Ferreira Machado, Maria Bernadete Fernardes Vieira de Melo


This article presents a research about the control measures practiced in a brewery, part of a company that is very relevant in the Brazilian beer industry. The research was focused on the operation of specific equipment on a beer production line, the pasteurizer (the machine responsible for pasteurizing the beer by using hot water). The main aim is to identify which measures adopted are inefficient and the factors that jeopardize these measures. To reach this goal, there was a preliminary analysis that had identified the main environmental risks at the job location such as: noise, high temperatures and unsuitable lighting. After that, there were carried out documental analysis such as: Risk Prevention Policy, interviews, study by observation and measures, besides biographical research in articles and academic publications. It was concluded that the PPE (personal protective equipment) and CPE (collective protection equipment) used by the pasteurizer operators are not efficient. This research presents suggestions to improve the control measures practiced, to make them more efficient and to make the work environment healthier.

Gestão de Turnos no Centro de Relato e Controlo

Carlos Bernardino, Óscar Frias, Miguel Corticeiro Neves


It was prepared, submitted and examined empirically an inquiry to shift on the Reporting Center and Control of Monsanto. From the results, it follows that steps should be taken, in order to develop more specific studies of human factors in risk prevention at work, which may be associated with satisfaction , motivation and performance, including studies to look into the emotional intelligence, stress and burnout, coping strategies adopted and the ability of resilience and vulnerability to stress.

Acidentes no pessoal das escolas públicas de Barcelos e Esposende (2009-2015)

Maria Jesus Rodriguez Blanco


In 2014 the pre hospital emergency network was strengthened and it was settled that circumstances of possible accidents, incidents and dangerous events should be defined in any workplace’s prevention plan. The school park in the municipalities of Barcelos and Esposende is organized into 115 public organizational units. The aim is to monitor the accidents of educational and not educational personnel of public establishments of education for at least five or more years. Followed methodology included qualitative analysing of existing administrative documents held in school grouping headquarters; meetings with the safety delegate of every school grouping, the teacher responsible for health education and the executive managing director; interviewing the affected worker; and consultation of medical monitoring reports. It was found that no educational institution had an occupational health monitoring programme and/or occupational health and safety plan. 13 school groupings were sensitized for the organization of prevention plans but 2 of them refused to collaborate and only other 2 had safety plans approved by Civil Protection Braga District Command. Between 2009 and 2015, 113 accidents at work were identified among teachers and support staff of public educational establishments. Apart from 1 case of sudden death of a teacher in the classroom and 5 commuting accidents, most were injuries due to muscular overstraining in physical education teachers, library and stationery teachers, and supporting staff for the psychomotor impaired, and non traumatic injuries by improper handling chemicals in laboratories and maintenance of facilities, as well as other incidents in school canteen staff reinforcement. In 7 school groupings there was an emergency and first aid prevention programme, supervised by health professionals, with a reminder that adverse events should be reported and a written standardized procedure on how to communicate these situations to the Public Health Unit of the ACES (Health Centre Grouping). Participatory strategies to involve educational and not educational personnel in detecting accident causes in the school and school-related spaces serve to encourage the proposal of corrective actions to be implemented in front of the adverse events recorded by school personnel themselves.

The measure of social well-being and psychosocial effects in a population of chronically ill patients affected by asbestos poisoning

Adela Reig Botella, Miguel Clemente


The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation of mental health and psychosocial of asbestos sufferers in the region of Ferrol (Spain). We try to verify if there are variables of social well-being able to differentiate chronically ill patients affected by asbestos poisoning from healthy people. One hundred and eighty people participated in the study, the information was collected from two groups, one composed of 110 people affected by chronic disease, particularly asbestos poisoning; and a comparison group of 70 people, including shipyard workers, that nowadays do not have any symptoms of occupational disease. All people that took part in these sample groups were male whose age average was 67 years old. We used the questionnaire Derogatis SCL-90, comparing the two groups of subjects. The dimensions of instrumental support, informational support, emotional support, positive and negative, positive social companionship and limitations, the average scores for the two subsamples are very similar. And how in negative social companionship and in satisfaction is where there seem to be the biggest differences. The individuals affected by asbestos poisoning also have high rates of occurrence of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global indicator of gravity, compared with unaffected subjects. The researches done on quality of life and health in affected show how these diseases manifest serious psychological problems and serious changes to your relationships.

Análise postural por fotogrametria - Estudo de Caso

André Luís Cabral, Eduardo C. Silva


The postural deviations are linked to a number of different types of pain and body disorders. The postural assessment is a key tool for the diagnosis of postural deviations. This study aims to verify the presence of postural deviations among workers of a food and nutrition unit (FNU) located in northern of Portugal, through the assessment by photogrammetry process. For this, were used a photo camera, to perform the pictures and two softwares tools (physical test and Sapo) following reliable protocols for postural assessment. Were evaluated 13 workers of FNU (3 men and 10 women). The results showed that all workers have some postural deviation. High shoulders and head tilt were the most significant postural deviations. Workers presented problems related to posture as the objectives of this study, however this study could not confirm that the causes of the deviations are related to work activity. For this, further studies are in process of evaluation to discover the possible causes of postural deviations in the population studied.

What can be the actions following a coal mine accident

Calkaya M., Gokay M.K.


Coal has been produced in Turkey by state owned and private companies. There are more than 50 coal mining companies and their main products are lignite. Limited amount of bituminous coal are produced at north part of Turkey and supplied usually to smelters. Lignite coals' calorific value directing their type of usage, low calorie lignite coals are mainly mined only for power plants while the others are mined for domestic usage. Due to coal formation and depositional conditions in early geologic eras, coal reserves have not been found in large dimensions in Turkey. Besides lignite seams have been explored in separate locations with limited reserve in Turkey, they are mined by different companies and their coal products are usually consumed in their local regions. Main obstacle in Turkey's coal mining industry is mine explosions and other mine related accidents. In last 50 years, Turkey has dramatically experienced mine explosions and their post-event traumatic influences (Spada & Burgherr, 2016). This fact can easily be observed all over the society. In this paper what can be the situation and what can be the better way of handling the rescue operations are explained according to authors’ experiences.

Análise de Palavras-Chave para Avaliação de Risco na Atividade Portuária

Cristina Campos, João Baptista, Teresa Almeida


The main objective of this short article is to acknowledge if there are keywords on scientific articles related to port activities. For this purpose, several articles that are literature reviews of quantitative or qualitative methods used for risk management and process safety and all their references (total of 751) have been analysed, resulting in about 3000 keywords, associated to citation belonging to the articles. None of these keywords refers specifically to port activities. From this data it is possible to infer that there is a great amount of words associated to risk assessment and methods used, and none of them is directly related to port activities.

O impacto da inclusão do dador na avaliação ergonómica dos locais de colheita de sangue

Patrícia Campos, Isabel Loureiro


To perform an ergonomic analysis of a workplace, a systemic and holistic ergonomic approach can be used aiming to include all the possible occupational interactions improving not only the workers conditions but also contributing to patient safety as well as quality of the provided care. As example of a system approach we have the Ergonomic Tridimensional Analysis Model (ETdA). This methodology is based on algorithms that weight the classification given by professionals, analyst and donors in the ergonomic evaluation. Each dimension uses an observation tool to perform the evaluation: ETdA questionnaire (users), ETdA evaluation form (workers) and ETdA ergonomic checklist (analyst/ergonomist). This study was performed in a Health care service responsible for blood-donor and it aims to analyse the impact of the donor in the ergonomic evaluation of blood collection sites, namely in the fixed station. The three ETdA dimensions were: donors, professionals and I as Analyst. Several weights were tested and assigned to each ETdA dimension. It was observed that the decision-making for intervention undergoes changes from the lower weights, regarding donor evaluation. In the study of paired decision-making, donor/analyst and professional/analyst, it turns out that there are differences in the decision-making for several ergonomic factors. The ETdA approach has proven to be a very useful methodology in the ergonomic evaluation of blood collection sites and in the study of the donor´s impact.

Incineração dos Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos e Risco de Exposição a Substâncias Radioactivas

Fernando P. Carvalho, J. M. Oliveira, M. Malta


Evaluation of the incineration process of municipal solid waste for the risks related to radioactive substances allowed identifying steps where radiation exposure may occur. The source of radiation can be located in radioactive substances (radioactive sources) wrongly eliminated into municipal waste (e.g., industrial and medical waste) and common materials of natural origin that, through burning, release radionuclides (e.g., polonium-210) that may build up in the facility. The risk of radioactive sources being incinerated may expose facility workers and also members of the public and should be prevented using portals equipped with radiation detectors before loading waste in the incinerator. The risk of natural radioactive substances becoming concentrated after volatilization primarily occurs in the fly ash and its collection and handling steps may expose installation workers to radioactivity. Therefore, the operation of waste incinerators requires, apart other hazardous substances that may raise occupational and environmental health risks such as dioxins, a careful evaluation of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. The European Directive 59/2013 EURATOM establishing the basic safety standards for radiation protection applies to these facilities.

Protecção Contra Radiações Ionizantes na Industria de Fosfatos

Fernando P. Carvalho, J. M. Oliveira, M. Malta


The production of phosphate fertilizers is based on phosphate ore usually imported from Morocco or other African country. Sedimentary phosphates (fosforites) have a high content of uranium and may also contain toxic heavy metals. Part of the radioactive elements contained in phosphate rock remains in the waste, especially in the gypsum (phosphogypsum) resulting from the phosphoric acid production step. Manipulation of phosphate rock, often transported in bulk as a crushed material, creates dusty environments and can lead to exposure and inhalation of dusts containing uranium, radium, polonium and radioactive lead. In warehouses, the piles of crushed phosphate rock are sources of ionizing radiation which can cause body's exposure to external radiation. As the phosphate rock contains radium-226 it is also a source of radon gas to the atmosphere. Therefore, storage of phosphate rock and phosphate products should not be done in poorly ventilated premises because radon may build up inside, and the access of people into premises should be regulated according to the guidelines of radiation protection. The elimination of gypsum is one of the current problems of phosphate industry as it is not easy to reuse (recycle) this waste due to its content in toxic metals and radionuclides.

Occupational Risk Assessment & Management: easier said, than done. The importance of the Culture of Safety

Elisabetta de Cillis, Mario Patrucco, Romano Borchiellini, Paolo Fargione


The Occupational Safety & Health (OS&H) Regulations (EEC 89/391 Directive, and the deriving DLgs.81/08 Italian enforcement) introduced the Risk Assessment and Management as a mandatory task for the employer. Nevertheless, often there is some disconnection between both Design vs Risk Analysis, and Execution vs Design. Far from a formal problem, such disconnections often originate from the lack of qualified and widespread professional competence on the basics of the OS&H, involving bureaucratic instead of substantiated approaches (paper safety and all-purpose procedures “pasted” at the last minute). Hence, the importance of a wide dissemination of the Culture of Safety as an essential tool for effective Prevention.

Influência da obesidade na sobrecarga física percecionada durante a manipulação vertical de cargas – Um estudo preliminar

Ana Colim, Pedro Arezes, Paulo Flores, Silmara Silva


Obesity prevalence is increasing among the Portuguese workforce, similarly to other industrial countries. Obesity seems to negatively affect the individuals’ work capacity. Tasks with vertical handling loads, including lifting and lowering, are very common in occupational contexts. With the aim of studying the possible effect of obesity on workers’ physical overload during vertical handling loads, psychophysical data were collected from a total of 14 participants with different obesity levels (non-obese, high level of obesity and very high level). The participants were asked to go through 6 lifting trials with different occupational conditions and, for each task tested, they reported physical loading by using the Borg’ “Category Ratio-10” (CR-10) scale. The obtained results in this preliminary study are not conclusive about the obesity influence on perceived physical overload during vertical handling loads. Accordingly, this study should be continued, by considering a statistically valid sample and other psychophysical techniques that can complement the CR-10 scale results.

Mapeamento do Ruído Ocupacional em Contexto Industrial

André Cordeiro, Alberto Sérgio Miguel, António Oliveira, Rui Ramos


Occupational noise is considered as one of the 10 major health problems worldwide, with a significant contribution to the emergence of diseases in the auditory system of workers. Some companies, due to the reduced budget, tend to neglect noise control, endangering the health of workers. It is important that there is an evolution of knowledge in the area, in order to make the measurement and prediction of sound level not only more effective but also more profitable economically. In this work, it is intended to begin the process of mapping one sector of an industrial unit. This analysis provided information about the potential and limitations arising from the use of this tool for studying the exposure of workers to excessive occupational noise. Initially, there was a general review of all company sectors and, based on the company's noise reports, the choice of the referred workplace was undertaken. It was found that the mixing sector compared with other sectors of the company, was one of the noisiest sectors. For the analysis of the sound level time and events was assessed. After modelling of the sector, simulation of results was carried out in order to get the sector's noise map. It was concluded that there are several noise sources, in addition to devices, that generally have influence on the sound level in workplaces. It was also possible to identify in some cases, the variation of the sound level over the production cycle. After simulation of the results in the mixing sector, there was a difference from 9 to 14 dB(A) between the simulated sound level and the sound level measured at check points. The difference may be due to several factors, such as deviations in measuring the sound level at the control point, precision used in the simulation results and the significant number of sound sources included in the developed models. This study contributed to the development of methodologies for the modeling of workplaces. Additionally, it allowed to acquire an overview of the major issues to be addressed in order to obtain a representative simulation of the real scene.

Occupational Exposure to Particles During Hotel´S Rooms Cleaning

Inês Costinha, Sofia Simões, Filipa Figueiredo, Susana Viegas


Background: The majority of studies investigated ambient particles, although in most industrialized countries people spend most of their time indoors and significant emissions of fine and ultrafine particles leading to human exposure are caused by various indoor tasks, including cleaning tasks. Objective: To characterize the occupational exposure to particles during cleaning of hotel´s rooms. Methodology: Measurements of mass concentration and particle number concentration were performed before and during cleaning tasks in two rooms with different floor types (wood and carpet) with the equipment Lighthouse, model 3016 IAQ. Results: Considering mass concentration, particles with higher mass were responsible for higher levels of contamination, particularly PM5.0 and PM10.0. However, considering the particle number concentration, the smaller particle size (0.3 m) obtained the higher values. Conclusion: It was observed higher number of particles of the smaller size in all tasks, which is associated with worse health effects. It was observed that the room with wood in the floor has lower values when compared to the room with carpet. The tasks with greater exposure were the “vacuuming” and “clean up powder”.

Segurança participativa: um estudo de caso na Construção Civil

Rui Cunha, Hernâni Veloso Neto


The text discusses how workers participation in the prevention management process of a large construction project can function as a key success factor to an effective improvement of working conditions and to reduce accidents probability. Will be analyzed the contribution of the participative safety in the work organization management and in the workers safety performance. Also will be presented different participation forms that can be adopted by one organization in order to achieve a participative safety management, signaling the operationalization possibilities in real organizational context and the implementation specificities of those different mechanisms. Finally, it will be demonstrated how these precepts were adopted in the Corgo Viaduct construction project (county of Vila Real, Portugal), a work of high technical complexity, which was considered a high-risk safety project. The experiment carried out enabled the traditional fragmentation and work division gave way to a discourse of integration, where safety issues and activities began to be discussed and considered across all organizational process. It was a context that favored the creation of levels of commitment and motivation in the workers, contributing to achieving the main safety objective defined at the beginning of the construction project - "zero deaths, zero serious accidents."

Influence of work processes on variations in the parameters of complex reactions to stimuli

Grzegorz Dahlke, Milena Drzewiecka, Marcin Butlewski


The article discusses the results of an experiment conducted in a bituminous coal mine among underground workers. The aim of the study was to identify the influence of work performed in the specific working environment of a coal mine on the time of reaction to light and sound stimuli. The study relied on a reaction time measuring device (MCR 2001E) from the company Psychotronics, which is a stationary diagnostic tool used to determine thresholds of response to visual and auditory stimuli. The measurements were made before the workers descended underground and upon their return to the surface. The results of device measurements from a small sample group showed significant variations and shed light on the impact that working conditions and working environments have on fatigue development. This analysis is part of a broader research program aimed at developing a management system that will duly account for miner fatigue.

The impact of work on body composition changes in workers

Grzegorz Dahlke, Milena Drzewiecka, Marcin Butlewski


The article presents the results of an experiment conducted in a bituminous coal mine among underground workers. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of performing work in the specific setting of a coal mine on changes in body composition. The Tanita MC-780MA segmental body composition analyser was used during the experiment for bioelectrical impedance analysis. The measurements were taken before the miner subjects descended underground and after they finished their work and returned to the surface. The results of device-based tests, which were distributed widely, offer insight into the impact of working conditions and working environment on worker fatigue. The experiment is a part of a research program aimed at creating a management system that accounts for the development of fatigue in miners.

Perda auditiva induzida por ruído em professores de música

Ana Delgado, Filipa Carvalho, Rui B. Melo


Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an occupational health problem that is not acknowledged in music schools. The Portuguese legislation on the protection of workers from noise exposure does not cover musicians. In Europe, there is a conduct code, based on the Directive 2003/10/CE, which provides general guidance to protect musicians and entertainment workers from noise. Lack of education for the conservation of hearing within the school community is a major obstacle to the effective implementation of a national hearing loss prevention strategy. This study aimed to verify if music teaching has potential to induce hearing loss on teachers. Equivalent continuous sound level (LAeq) was monitored during music classes with a sound level meter, allowing to assess the daily personal noise exposure level (LEX,8h) of twenty music teachers. Plus, all participating teachers filled in a questionnaire concerning intrinsic and individual factors, and all were submitted to simple tonal audiograms. Statistical data analysis relied on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 21. Several music teachers (25%) are subjected to daily personal noise exposure levels above the lower action level, which requires control measures to be implemented, namely risk awareness increase. Teaching activities imposing higher noise exposure levels were group lessons and individual classes, with directional musical instruments. Hearing loss symptomatology (tinnitus, missing parts of conversations, sleeping disturbances) and hearing impairment’s evolution do not seem to be directly related with daily personal noise exposure levels nor with noisy activities accomplished during leisure time.

Health risks related to nanomaterials used in cementitious materials marketed

Beatriz María Díaz-Soler, Maria Dolores Martínez-Aires, Mónica López-Alonso


The addition of nanomaterials in common basic binders such as cements, limes and plasters improves significantly its properties. However the toxicity of nanomaterials is an open question to clarify. The objective is to disseminate relevant information about the health risks related to nanomaterials used in cementitious materials marketed. A systematic commercial web-based search and reviewed have been carried out. Nine nanoproducts marketed have been identified as well as mainly findings on the toxicity of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica nanogel (SiO2) -synthetic amorphous silica- and silver (Ag). Currently there are not a large number of cementitious materials with nanomaterials marketed however this number is expected to increase. Several evidences of the toxicity of nanomaterials have been found, however there is no consensus about the relation between parameters and effects. Therefore this reveal the necessity to study more deeply about this topic as well as spread the knowledge between construction and occupational safety and health professionals.

Montagem, Manutenção e Desmontagem de Sinalização Rodoviária Temporária - Estudo de Caso

Bruno Dinis, Paulo Oliveira, Frederico Gonçalves


Every time that exits obstacles and works on the main road, they should be preceded by a temporary signaling project (TSP), which is intended to notice the users of the public road and to transmit the obligations, restrictions or the special bans that temporarily are imposed to them. With the present work we intend to alert for the importance of temporarily signaling during road works, identifying the primary risks for the workers involved in the assembly, maintenance and dismantle. We also intend to reveal the importance of a TSP, inserted on the work reality. The methodology used is based on the collection of data, by direct observation, referent to the technical characteristics of the practical process and method in study. Practical application scenarios have been analyzed and discussed, such as when the TSP is dismissed and if the situation to flag is inserted on the signaling manual approved by the competent authority. Another scenario is the implementation of signaling inserted on the approved signaling manuals, namely, the presented signaling scheme doesn’t define the assembly sequence, neither the procedures to adopt. With base on the scenario results it’s proposed with detail, specific work procedures inherent to the signaling assembly, maintenance and disassembly activities in active structures in order to plan and predict the appropriate preventing measures to adopt and to define the rules and procedures to implement based on the minimization of traffic accidents and the risk of run-over’s during the referred activities. It is considered that this work can also contribute for a better mitigation of sinistrality in this sector, to develop the appropriate TSP, with a strict security planning. Included pioneering preventive measures to adopt for each specific situation, compared to current practice. There by enhancing the proactive security component at the place of work.

A Dor e o Desconforto no Trabalho: Estudo de Caso no Sector Têxtil

Fernanda Daniela Dionísio, Horácio Castro, Rita Silva, Celina P. Leao


The present study aims to investigate the relation between pain and discomfort among a group of textile company workers. First, a literature review was carried out based on various aspects of working in the textile sector and its influence on the health of its professionals. Then, an ergonomic analysis of workplaces was done followed by a statistical analysis of the data obtained by questionnaires. The questionnaires were randomly distributed to a group of workers (in a total of 134 surveys) from different sectors of the textile company. Statistical tests were performed using SPSS software. The study results point out a relationship between pain and discomfort and some variables related to the worker, for example, in the processing sector. After the analysis of the studied variables, solutions and endorsements are proposed aimed to improve the working conditions.

Boas Práticas, Higienização das Mãos e Uso de Equipamentos de Proteção Individual em Prestadores de Cuidados de Saúde

João Farinha, Cristina Santos, João Paulo Figueiredo, Ana Ferreira


Nosocomial infections are associated with the health care units, and are one of the main causes of high morbidity and mortality. Then comes a rising tide of awareness of the risks arising from the transmission of pathogens, resulting on a joint effort by professionals and health organizations for its eradication. Hand hygiene emerges as one of the most effective tools to prevent those infections, mainly when this practice is associated with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the good practices of the health care providers in the central region of Portugal. In particular, evaluating the knowledge about good practices, hand hygiene and PPE use. As evaluation tool we resorted to a questionnaire. The analysed sample was composed by 45 health care professionals, comprising doctors and nurses. The results show that there’s no significant differences between the compartmental behaviour adopted by doctors and nurses. Additionally the individuals with lower professional experience [0 to 10 years[ shown better practices with mean values of 7.18, compared with 6.30 of the other groups (p=0,036). Statistically differences are found in the result of professional experience and training received. The professionals who have been trained recently present best practices. So the implementation of a training program on good practice and use of PPE, with regular mandatory update, would be an important added value to the fight against nosocomial infections.

Gerenciamento da Implantação da Produção + Limpa (P+L)

José Luiz Fernandes, Eduardo Linhares Qualharini, Andréa Sousa da Cunha Fernandes, Marcelo de Jesus, Rodrigues da Nóbrega


Minimising waste is not just an environmental goal, but mostly a program oriented to increase the degree of utilization of materials, with technical and economic advantages, inserting so the Cleaner Production (CP) for the purpose not only of to minimize waste, but also to increase competitiveness. The methodology is one of the principles that all waste generated in a production process, was once raw material and purchased as such, just a waste of money. External waste recycling as a sustainable action, is nothing more than the latter within this methodology. The CP seeks to reduce the waste at source and prevent it from being generated and recycled. Several studies point to the efficiency of the CP methodology.

Avaliação da condição térmica de trabalhadores no Centro de Entrega de Encomendas de uma Empresa Postal na Paraíba

Natanna Fernandes, Ivanize Silva


As essential condition for health, safety and productivity of workers in a given environment has thermal comfort. This research aimed to evaluate the thermal conditions to which they are subjected workers during the screening activity in the orders delivery center of a postal company in city João Pessoa in Paraiba. To carry out this evaluation was adopted the guidelines determined by the ISO 7730/2005: Ergonomics of the thermal environment. So that, on the days that were held the collects, the values found to PMV are above two and the values for PPD are above 82%. So, with the obtained results conclude it is that the environment under study is inappropriate regarding the condition to thermal comfort.

Segurança no Planeamento e Execução de Trabalhos em Parques Eólicos

Núria Ferreira, Miguel Corticeiro Neves


Construction is a very important sector in Portugal, and despite the crisis it still employs thousands of people. The constant concern in this sector is the National’s accident index. Although it has been reducing in the latest years, Construction is still the economic sector with more serious and mortal work accidents. According to this, it’s a priority to invest in prevention and assure the working conditions regarding safety and health. Wind park construction, as other types of constructions, is very complex. Wether by the intervention of several entities, or the different types of work to do simultaneously or by communication among the intervenients. It has unique construction characteristics, that besides civil constructions, electrical installation, electromechanical installation, jobs are being developed in height and small spaces, such as the assembling of air generators. Planning, programming and organizing jobs are essential to implement in advance the safety conditions. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the importance and the need of considering safety when planning constructions. Which will help avoid production loss, unpredicted costs and above all to contribute to the workers well being, both physical and psychological. Two different wind park constructions have been submitted to an inquiry, regarding workers perception on the importance of planning tasks; their preparation, organization, productivity and its influence in safety at work. As the results show, workers have knowledge and training in planning as well as implementing it in construction, reflecting the importance of safety in the performed activities.

Melhorias ergonómicas numa secção de embalagem: um caso de estudo

Sandra Fonte, Nélson Costa, Carina Pimente


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common work-related health problem in Europe and consequently one of the biggest ergonomics and health and safety concerns. In order to decrease the risk of MSDs in a packaging line of a company that produces heating solutions a study is being developed. After the analysis of the current ergonomic conditions, the goal is to implement improvements in the workstations and an effective job rotation program. The following tools are going to be applied: (1) Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, (2) OCRA, (3) EAWS, and (4) MARZC. The results of the analysis stage show that there are opportunities for ergonomic improvements in the packaging line.

Prevenindo acidentes: Aperfeiçoando A Videografia Ergonomica

Jorge Freund, Mario Vidal


Technical and specific aspects of audio visual production for ergonomic assessments. The knowledge required for proceeding a correct ergonomic videography. Research/survey/interviews with ergonomics professionals and students and video documentary makers checking the needs and demands and recommendations for making audiovisuals for ergonomic assessments.The compiling and organizing of these points into a basic repertoire of instructions for ergonomics professionals

Evaluation of the Quality of Work of the Health and Safety Service Using the Servqual Method - a Case Study in Polish Company

José Pedro Carvalho Araújo, Fátima Lobo


The role of health and safety services in Polish companies has increased significantly since the industrial plants started paying more attention to the health and safety of the people they employ, even if for economic reasons. The result of employees not complying with the safety requirements at work are losses which by far exceed the costs of prevention and compliance with the requirements of safety standards. The article presents the basic objective of appointing health and safety services in Polish companies. It tackles the issues of taking care of safe conditions by employees, and continuous cooperation with top management of companies which involves current reporting and continuous commitment to the creation, improvement and streamlining of the work environment. The authors have presented the results of studies evaluating the quality of work of a health and safety service in a manufacturing company from the foundry industry employing more than 120 people. To assess the quality the Servqual method was used, which allowed to determine the differences in the level of quality expected by employees who are recipients of the services rendered by the health and safety service and the quality actually received. The presented results indicate explicatively the areas where the greatest gaps and need of application of preventive actions were identified.

A Construção Civil e a Gestão de Saúde e Segurança no Brasil e em Portugal: um olhar sobre as obras de pequena dimensão

Haroldo Gomes, Pedro Arezes, Luiz Carlos Fadel de Vasconcellos


The construction industry sector has some peculiarities when comparing to other economic sectors, whether in Portugal or Brazil, it plays a key-role in developing countries. However, it is also one of the economic sectors where more work accidents occur and therefore, the industrial sector where the risk of accidents is higher. Because of this, both Brazil and Portugal have sought to improve management tools used in this sector in order to minimize the adverse effects of work accidents in this activity. The current work, , bibliographic database, aims to analyse the main management tools that are used either in Portugal or Brazil, regarding occupational health and safety conditions in small construction works, with the objective to identify future contributions. From the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that there is still much to deepen and discuss on this subject, particularly regarding the small-scale construction works. It was also possible to consolidate the idea that a knowledge and experience exchange and transfer between both countries can be important at aiming an improvement of the management tools used in this particular economic sector.

Ergonomics aspects in occupational risk management

Adam Górny, Joanna Sadlowska-Wrzesinska


The article discusses the need to ensure that workers feel comfortable and well in their working environment as a prerequisite for high-quality efficient performance. To that end, systemic risk assessments need to be conducted, risks need to be properly managed and ergonomic criteria need to be incorporated into the process of selecting improvement measures. The use of ergonomic assessment criteria allows to increase the area of influence and achieved risk reducing will help improve working comfort and, as a consequence, achieve a better working environment and boost employee welfare at work.

Work environment in quality assurance

Adam Górny


An essential part of quality improvement is to account for the working environment which is a key determinant of company processes. The knowledge acquired while assessing the work environment should be used to determine the possibility of safe human operation and of enabling people to meet production and service targets (Hedlund, et al. 2016). Such knowledge also defines the scope and nature of the necessary improvement measures that affect the operation of the related processes. The ability to improve the working environment and thereby boost process effectiveness hinges on the application of quality improvement principles, methods and tools. Their use requires compliance with the principles of quality management and systemic approach guidelines. As a consequence, the organization gains the ability to fulfil its obligations as an employer, as set out in the ISO 9001 standard and to approach its processes in a more mature manner.

Burnout nos Motoristas de Pesados de Longo Curso

Cristóvão Gonçalves, Miguel Corticeiro Neves


Burnout has been generally accepted as an important emotional reaction to chronical occupational stress, and as being classified as a state of exhaustion in which individuals are emotionally exhausted, unmotivated and experiment loss of professional commitment. The truck drivers’ profession has proved to be an activity which is subjected to numerous stress-inducing agents, of various kinds. For this reason, and also with the aim of trying to understand if the burnout is one of the causes of high turnover in truck drivers of this case study, we investigate burnout due to variables characterizing these professionals. To this end, it was taken a sample of 40 truck drivers, all the males, who responded to the QAB (Questionário de Avaliação de Burnout) questionnaire, comprising the MBI (Maslash Burnout Inventory) and personal and professional variables. The most obvious results indicate that the main factors of burnout are greater age, Portuguese nationality, company greater service time, exercise of the international service (instead of the exercise of the Iberian service), permanent contract of the employees, higher wages, less job satisfaction, exaggerated time waiting for cargo loads, leadership lack of appreciation for truck drivers and the lack of respect among colleagues. Given these results, it is recommended training in the area of emotional management involving all truck drivers, as well as the promotion of systematic activities such as training, workshops and fun activities that enhance the motivation of these drivers, along with the creation of tools that prevent permanent contract employees to see that condition as an end. Additionally, it is recommended, to foster personal fulfilment of these workers, the reduction of time waiting for cargo loads, as to the implementation of policies that value the work done by these professionals and promote respect among colleagues. Because drivers have a very sedentary and solitary profession, should be established by the company periodic moments of interaction between colleagues (fun activities), taking into account also the great benefit to the company that the transmission of values taken. This passage of values is of great importance to the interpersonal relationship.

Setor da Construção em Portugal - Título Habilitante de Laboração versus Serviços de Segurança no trabalho: Estudo Exploratório

Frederico Gonçalves, Paulo Oliveira, João Baptista, Bruno Dinis


In recent decades many workers benefit from improvements in their health and safety in the workplace. However, to support the disinvestment in this area the current economic and financial situation in Portugal has been used. This paper aims to demonstrate on the basis of an exploratory study, the evolutionary capacity of the binomial state with companies qualified under the authorization to pursue the activity in the construction sector, issued by the Institute of Public Markets, Real Estate and Construction, IP (IMPIC, IP) and the organization of the safety services at work.

Avaliação de riscos ocupacionais numa empresa de serralharia: Caso de estudo

Helena Guedes, Paulo Oliveira, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Laranjeira, Miguel Lopes


Companies should invest more in the organization of working practices and engineering control sand appropriate equipment to avoider minimize the risk of exposure to hazard ous agents, good management of occupational hazards is essential for the well fare of all employees. The main focus of this case study is the analysis of occupational hazards in workplaces of a locks company, and primarily relates to risk prevention. The William Fine Simplified approach allows us to quantify the estimated level of potential risk for the of hazard ousness determination. This review will serve as a tool to increase levels of prevention.

Fatores de risco na atividade de procuradores do trabalho: aplicação do Effortreward Imbalance Questionaire (ERI-Q)

Francisco Milton Araújo Junior, Cláudia Marisa Madureira Pereira, Marta Santos


This study aims to analyze the occupational risks of labor prosecutors who carry out their professional activities inBrazil. It is a descriptive and analytical study based on gathering data from the Effort-reward Imbalance Questionnairesurvey (ERI-Q). The results showed that 37% of labor attorneys perform activities with high mental effort; 45.6% consider that reward is incompatible with the activity they perform; 49.5% have imbalance between effort-reward; and 62.3% have overcommitment to work. The results suggest that there are strong evidence on exposure of the labor attorney psychosocial factors hazardous to health.

Percepção dos Trabalhadores: Quanto a identificação dos Ricos Organizacionais do Trabalho

Flavio Koiti Kanazawa, Yara Juliano, Claudia Dias Ollay


Introduction: one of the main causes the work diseases as Osteomuscular Work-Related Disease, mental disorders, and the workplace accidents is the organizational work factors. Health Promotion is conceptualized as a community empowerment process exercising to improve their quality of life and health, through increased participation of these people in control of this process, with the identification of aspirations, satisfying the needs and favorable changes for the environment. The Work Ergonomic Assessment and the Study of Organizational Climate are costly analytical work and time consuming and also developed only by professional experts, situation contrary to the principles of Health Promotion. Objectives: develop a data collection instrument and evaluate perception of workers for ease in identifying the organizational work factors related to their health and safety in the workplace. Method: the population was composed of 143 workers. The research instrument used was a self-applicable questionnaire, whit the variables: work process; human characteristic; machinery and/or equipment and materials. Results: analyzing the organizational factors related to work in each of the three dimensions (using the Mann-Whitney) and analyzing individually the 33 questions (using Chi-Square Test and the Fisher's Exact Test), no statistically significant difference is find between the group of workers with working time in the company <= 5 years with > 5 years in the degree of ease in interpretation of the questions and in the answer choice. Conclusions: the questions were interpreted easily by the workers and they didn´t find difficulties in the choice of instrument for data collection as responses to organizational factors related to work.

Application of human biomonitoring programmes in occupational exposure contexts – an overview

Carina Ladeira, Susana Viegas


Human biomonitoring consists, in one hand by the research and investigation of environmental hazards and, in other hand in risk estimation of developing cancer by exposure at those conditions. Since carcinogenesis is a process that takes time, the biomarkers applied to recognize abnormal biological events have been developed in molecular epidemiological studies. These biomarkers allow the quantification and identification of the progression of normal to abnormal biological conditions at molecular level. In general, biomarkers can be classified in exposure, effect and genetic susceptibility. Genotoxicity biomarkers are a sub-type of effect biomarkers and are widely used in the assessment of genomic effects caused by exposure – environmental or occupational, being considered predictors of carcinogenesis development. Taken together, and inserted in a biomonitoring program, probably is the most growing tool available nowadays for the prevention of health effects from occupational exposure to chemicals. Ethical considerations should always be taken in consideration in the planning and implementation of the biomarkers involved.

Occupational risks in healthcare sector. Hazard perception and risk assessment in clinical service

Teresa Lajinha, Miguel Tato Diogo


Workers in healthcare sector are exposed to numerous types of occupational risks (chemical, biological, physical, psychosocial, ergonomic). However, by having the skills and the capacity to treat sick and injured people, the issues related with occupational health and safety for this group of professionals are sometimes ignored. This work intends to present and discuss some results concerning hazard perception and risk assessment in healthcare sector, sustained by outcomes obtained in a risk assessment study in a clinical service of a hospital and other published results. To identify hazards and evaluate risks in the hospital it was used a methodology that included observation, interview and an adaptation of the Simplified Evaluation Method for occupational risks assessment. The data and results obtained points out that nurses and auxiliary staff are more prone to risks and the kind and severity of risks for clinicians depends on the nature of exerted service/speciality. The study concludes that ergonomic risk was perceived as the most serious.

Redução do Ruído por Aplicação de Lã de Rocha

Paulo Laranjeira, Miguel Lopes, Paulo Oliveira, Mário Rebelo


Noise exposure in the workplace continues to be a serious problem for all workers. However, in many circumstances it is not possible to overcome the situation to which the worker is exposed and is only possible to apply generic measures such as the use of earplugs. This study aims to assess the absorptive capacity Rock Wool with the existing noise. Application of Rock Wool in equipment can bring several advantages, since it has a great capacity for thermal and acoustic insulation as well as physical features that enable easy application.

Avaliação Ergonómica do Posto de Trabalho do Médico-Dentista

Paulo Laranjeira, Hélia Faria, Miguel Lopes, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Oliveira


Presently, issues related to the necessities of adapting work to its actors are constant. The Odontology profession forces it’s practitioner to many factors that predispose organizational, social, psychic and physiological alterations. Considering the reduced attention usually attributed to the dentist posture, perhaps as a result of the diversity of risks presente in a dentist office, this study provides an ergonomic assessment (using RULA method) and intents to stress the relevance of raising awareness among the practitioners to this issue.

The Importance of Emerging Risks on Management of Health and Safety Risks

Mauro Laruccia, Dalton Cusciano


This paper examines the employees perceptions about Health and Safety Risks specifically the violence, included harassment (moral and sexual) phenomena considered emerging risk by EU-OSHA. The aim is to raise the perception of workers on emerging risks or psychosocial. Questions surveyed in Brazil adapted from European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks questionnaire with data collected (N =407). The results show that health and safety risks are affected by obstacles like a lack of resources such as time, staff or money, a lack of awareness, a lack of training and or expertise, a lack of technical support or guidance, culture within the establishment, and sensitivity of the issue, as well as the difficulties and obstacles in dealing with the risks significantly affect the management and decision making.

Assessment of risk to work-related musculoskeletal disorders of upper limbs at welding stations

Andrzej Marek Lasota, Krzysztof Hankiewicz


Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are common and serious industrial problems around the world. The objective of the present study was to assess and investigate the exposure level to risk to WRMSDs of upper limbs at welding stations. There were 32 welding stations examined in total – 21 spot welding stations (SWS) and 11 robot welding stations (RWS). The research group consisted of 32 employees. The mean age was 34.5 for SWS operators; standard deviation, SD = 6.1 years; for RWS operators mean age was 37.9 (SD=5.0) years. At the SWS 90% of workstations had high expose level to WRMSDs, at RWS – 55% of high expose level. At the SWS there is a higher disorder and risk to WRMSDs than at the RWS. Ergonomic interventions and further investigation are needed to eliminate the risk of exposures.

Food consumption and health status in University of Porto women employees'

João Pedro Marques Lima, Sofia Almeida Costa, Teresa Rs Brandão, Ada Rocha


Unhealthy food consumption is associated with the emergence of some chronic diseases and deterioration of human health. Considering that women have several tasks and responsibilities at home, they represent a study group that must be even more monitored in terms of occupational health. This work aims to understand the relationship between food consumption, health status, chronic conditions and energy levels, mood, concentration, stress and productivity in female collaborators at the University of Porto. A cross sectional observational study was conducted. Data collection was obtained through the application of a selfadministrated questionnaire. There were assessed 336 women, of 533 employees respondents, either academic or nonacademic workers. The majority of women were married, had an university degree, developed non-teaching activity and had a sedentary activity. Compared to men, women reported more frequently to suffer from cardiovascular diseases or other circulatory chronic diseases, such as lung or respiratory, neurologic, neuromuscular or neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal, cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune, osteoarticular or other diseases. Only endocrine diseases were more frequently reported from men than from women. In spite of 80% of women considered to have a healthy diet at the workplace, only 42% eat fresh fruit, 59% eat soup and 54% eat vegetables less than once a day at the workplace, determining that daily recommendation of these food groups will be hardly achieved. So, the promotion of consumption of these food groups at the workplace may contribute to the achievement of recommendations. Healthy food habits at the workplace such as the consumption of soup, fresh fruit, vegetables and water is associated with better health status and higher levels of energy, concentration and mood that contribute to better productivity at the workplace. Consumption of intermediate meals (mid-morning and mid-afternoon snacks) also contributes to an improvement of quality of food consumption, enhances women employees’ health and their performance at the University of Porto.

Experiências de Recuperação e Satisfação Laboral

Fátima Lobo, Diana Alves


The centrality of work is defined as the beliefs of individuals with regard to the degree of importance that work plays in their lives. People who consider work as a central part in their lives have a strong identification with the task. Job satisfaction can be defined as a positive emotional state or pleasure that results from the evaluation of the work or provided experiences. Is implied in the recovery process that the need comes from the effort of using internal resources to meet the individual requirements imposed by the professional sphere. The recovery process allows the effects of the condition to be alleviated or eliminated by suppressing labor requirements, allowing its operation back to the level of satisfaction. So, is the subject of this research to answer the following question: recovery experiences are predictors of job satisfaction? 625 subjects participated in the research and we used two instruments: Recovery Experiences Questionnaire (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007) and Cuestionario of satisfaccion (Mélia & Peiró, 1998). The results obtained by linear regression analysis confirms that the recovery experiences are predictors of job satisfaction: satisfaction with the physical environment and the supervision varies with relaxing activities and psychological distance; satisfaction, and benefits received depend on the relaxation activities. On the other hand, age is a predictor of satisfaction with supervision, benefits received, control and relaxation. The results show that the sample subjects reveal difficulty controlling their leisure time and developing activities that provide challenging experiences and opportunities for new learning. The results also indicate the importance of different interventions that address the development of coping strategies throughout life.

Estudo da prevalência de sintomas músculo-esqueléticos nos trabalhadores de um centro de triagem de resíduos valorizáveis

Ana Lopes, Maria Eugénia Pinho


The process of sorting out solid recyclable waste aims to conduct a selection of materials from particular collection circuits of municipal solid waste (sorted recycling bins, recycling centers, circuits at the house door and other special circuits) so they can be sent for recycling. This work is performed with the aid of an electric treadmill to move the waste, which is then separated manually by workers at different types of depending waste lines. This is a repetitive job which demands the workers to be on a standing position and there is little mechanical support for this task. In this study a survey was conducted among workers in a recyclable waste sorting center, supported by a questionnaire adapted from the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, in order to evaluate the workers' musculoskeletal problems. The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, as all the surveyed workers (56) said they felt pain or discomfort in at least one of nine body regions on at least one day in the last 12 months. As per the symptoms reported in the last 12 months, the workers identified the lower back (66.1%), the dorsal area (57.1%) and the shoulders (57.0%) as the body regions predominantly affected. In regards to intensity, 31.3% of the workers identified the shoulders as the region with the most intense discomfort, followed by the elbows (22.2%). The shoulders were also identified as the body part with the most common musculoskeletal symptoms (3.1%). When asked about the prevalence of symptoms for the past seven days, three parts of the body were mentioned more often: elbows (88.9%), ankles/feet (70.4%) and thighs (61.1%).

Engenharia de Avaliações: Estudo de Caso da Construção do Metrô no Município do Rio de Janeiro

Diego Meireles Lopes, Alessandra de Souza de Macedo Lopes, Marcelo de Jesus Rodrigues da Nóbrega


This paper refers to a technical expertise with the results presented coming from a technical report requested in a decree which was conducted by engineers settled in federal public agencies, thus legitimizing the best work and employing more reliability to solve the doubts of the competent judge in the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Finally, this work emphasizes the importance of Appraisal Engineering Study and Expert Engineering for enabling authorization reports for uninterrupted work operations. From these results, a Technical Opinion was given by an institution of Science and Technology - ICT, of the federal government, with technical arguments presented and demonstrated in this article, seeking the approval of the authorization of the completion of the project without interruption for 24 hours, includingSaturdays, Sundays and holidays.

Ambiente Térmico na Industria Têxtil e o seu Impacto na Produtividade

Miguel Lopes, Sara Gomes, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Laranjeira, Paulo Oliveira


In the last years much has been done to improve the safety and health workers. However there are still workers who perform their duties under inappropriate conditions, which puts into question their safety and health and in many cases affects productivity. Thermal environment is one of these factors. The paper aims to present the thermal environmental conditions in a given industrial textile company and analyze the impact of thermal environment on workers productivity.

Human development Index (HDI) and frequency rate of fatal occupational injuries. Are they related?

Antonio Lopez-Arquillos, Maria Dolores Martínez-Aires, Juan Carlos Rubio Romero, Jesus A. CarrilloCastrillo, María del Carmen Pardo Ferreira


Consequences in the human capital and society of occupational accident are cause of concern in Spain. Human development Index (HDI) is a useful measure of average achievement in key dimension of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. Although there are many researches based in the Human Development Index, there are few researches where Human development Index and accidents rates were studied together. The aim of the study was to find a relation between Human Development Index and fatal occupational accidents in Spain. Results show that tendency of the indexes in last years are opposite. Increasing tendency of the Human Development Index happened while fatal accident rates tendency decreased. Although some years accidents rates increased lightly, the global tendency is to decrease. An improvement in the key dimensions of the human development seem to be related with the evolution of accidents data.

Avaliação da insalubridade por exposição a ruído em uma empresa gráfica

Cicero Ferreira Machado, Maria Bernadete Fernandes Vieira de Melo


The work environment can expose workers to risks that affects your health and well-being. Among the potential environmental risks is the noise that causes great damage to the health of workers. This article presents a study on noise in a printing company. With the goal of quantifying the potential risk in some workplaces in order to provide the company management with a proposal for improvement of working conditions. It was found that the noise in some workplaces, as at the process of the printing exceeds exposure limit, soon it is necessary implementation of collective or personal protective equipment. Therefore, the recommendations are: regular maintenance of the moving parts of machinery and equipment, preparation of a lubrication plan, the execution of noisy activities at a distance, limit the duration of workers' exposure to noise and the use of hearing protection. These recommendations will make what workplaces are more salubrious.

Avaliação de Riscos Ocupacionais na Indústria da Construção: Estudo de Caso

Carlos Lourenço, Paulo Oliveira, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Laranjeira, Miguel Lopes


This article is based on a technical scientific study made in the context of evaluating the occupational hazards in the construction industry. The main objective is to develop a comparative analysis between the results of the evaluation of the occupational risks in the phase of elaboration of the Health and Safety plan for construction sites and a evaluation of the occupational risks during the construction. The used methodology for this study was the simplified method for the assessment of occupational risks, which showed us a huge undervaluation of the values of the Occupational risk evaluation assessed before the beginning of the construction by the responsible entity for the inclusion in the Health and Safety plan, before and during construction. In conclusion we identified a discrepancy about what is valued during execution of the occupational risks evaluation during its different stages.

Caso de Estudo – Coluna Vertebral vs. Movimentação Manual de Cargas

Carlos Magalhães, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Laranjeira, Hélia Faria, Luísa Mota, Miguel Lopes, Paulo Oliveira


The term Ergonomics derives from the Greek words Ergon (work) and nomos (rules), being thus the study of labor, labor relations with the surroundings and with those that develop it. Low back pain is one of the occupational diseases affecting more workers. Studies report that 80 % of population from industrialized countries had episodes of acute low back pain at some point in their lives. The etiology of back pain is multifactorial and of difficult diagnosis. Despite the difficulties in establishing precisely the factors that cause back pain, several studies have shown manual handling of high loads and high frequency repetitions have been identified as severe risks for development of back.

Aplicação da Metodologia Ativa no Processo Ensino-Aprendizagem nos Cursos de Engenharia Elétrica e Mecânica da UNISUAM

Lucas Vilaca Manhaes, Roberto Cruz da Silva, José Marques Lopes, Geraldo Motta Azevedo Junior, Marcelo de Jesus Rodrigues da Nóbrega


The aim of this study is to provide the means to build tables and didactic panels to improve the laboratory structure of "Machinery" and "Electric drives" disciplines through active methodology. The materials were designed to meet the needs of the UNISUAM's engineering teaching lab, incorporating three-phase and single-phase supply with voltage levels compatible for experiments, and also means total power off the bench and signaling for user safety and equipment protection. It was qualitatively verified the interest of the students in the design and development of these devices, as well as greater ease in understanding the proposed issues. It is intended to use this active methodology, dealing with an interdisciplinary way content for the training of students with a global vision system, able to articulate and contextualize the acquired knowledge and contribute to full understanding of the concepts studied.

Silicosis, a preventable occupational disease: current status and challenges

António Marques, Alice Gonçalves


Silicosis is known since ancient times and, although there has been some progress in the prevention, remains a worldwide public health problem and one of the most common occupational respiratory diseases in our midst. Besides its importance as an occupational disease, silicosis or even exposure to silica without established disease is associated with increased risk of developing various co-morbidities, both pulmonary and systemic. Silicosis is a diffuse interstitial lung disease characterized by fibrotic response in the lung parenchyma caused by continuous inhalation of crystalline silica (SiO2). It is the most prevalent pneumoconiosis caused by inhaling mineral dust and its evidence, clinical evolution and severity vary. Epidemiological studies indicate that workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica has an increased risk of developing lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, airway diseases, autoimmune diseases, chronic kidney disease, and other adverse health effects that often cause permanent disability or death premature. There is no effective treatment available at the prevention and early diagnosis is essential the control of this disease. The objective of the paper is to analyze the reasons why silicosis continue to affect many workers, being an old occupational diseases that could be avoided as causes and methods to control are known. In Portugal there is legislation that protects both enterprises and workers in safeguarding the aspects related to environmental and security conditions of each job. However, measures relating to hygiene and safety are slow to be implemented; hence raising awareness is a key factor. Pneumoconiosis, which includes silicosis, is associated with long periods of latency, but not being considered an immediate danger, causes the lack of accomplishment of collective protection measures and personal protection. Despite being classified as an occupational disease, therefore doctors have the additional responsibility to notify and evaluate the working capacity of the affected patients, there is an underreporting.

Avaliação do parâmetro SEAT em motoristas de autocarros urbanos

Maria Luisa Matos, Paulo Roberto da Costa, J. Santos Baptista


Whole Body Vibration is a main concern in many working activities. One of those is the urban bus drivers. So, in this study, the main goal is to evaluate the quality of the different seats used in the different bus of an urban transport company, using the SEAT (Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility) parameter. For that, the RMS (Root Mean Square) on the seat and on the floor of the bus was evaluated. It was found a decrease in SEAT value between 20% and 35% for seats with regulation's control and a small increase in SEAT value for seats without regulation. However, the smallest RMS values were found in a small bus with no seat regulation. So cannot be established any direct relation between SEAT and the RMS / comfort values for the seat of the urban buses. However, SEAT parameter is an excellent indicator of seats' capacity to reduce the RMS values and, consequently, to analyze the quality of those equipment.

Eficácia de um programa de ginástica laboral: influência da prática de actividade física no estado de saúde auto-percepcionado

Tiago Matoso, Ema Leite, Monica Pereira, João Carita, Ana Fernandes, Marilia Jorge


Several authors and international organizations have raised awareness to the importance of physical activity in disease prevention and health promotion. There are few data available on initiatives directed to reinforcement of physical activities in workplace settings in Portugal. The aims of this study consisted in evaluating the efficacy of a program directed to the promotion of physical activity in a clinical department of a hospital, in terms of self assessed health by the participants / department’s healthcare workers and assessing the impact of the program in other variables beyond self-perceived physical health. The program consisted in several sessions of moderate physical activities, three times per week, during three months. Participants completed a questionnaire prior and after the program consisting, mostly, in health status self assessment. Global results concerning self-perception on physical health showed low levels in pain / discomfort and low frequency of symptoms prior and after the participation in the program sessions. Although the program had a limited duration and the level of regularity in professionals participation was not the same for all of them, results showed a decrease in self assessed levels of intensity and frequency of pain / discomfort, when comparing pre and post program data. Results also showed that the reported benefits of the program went beyond physical wellbeing: participants referred several other benefits related to mental health and establishment of positive interpersonal relationships.

PtD aplicado na construção civil em empresas terceirizadas

Mirtes Mahon Mattar, Béda Barkokeba Junior


Considering the high number of serious and fatal accidents in the construction industry, it is clear that prevention is the most effective procedure. Assess the risks of accidents at the project design stage greatly increases the preventive work environments and activities to be carried out on a construction site. This article presents a study in Pernambuco, Brazil, in the period from 2010 to 2014, proving the high rates of work accidents in the civil construction contractors. They collected 64 (sixty-four) serious and fatal accidents an official database of the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE-PE) and the Institute of Criminology of Pernambuco (IC-PE). After analysis, it was found that micro-enterprises (20.78%) and smaller ones (27.27%), mostly subcontractors, dominate the scene in the number of accidents of work in construction in Pernambuco, Brazil. Thus, to obtain qualifying advances with regard to Safety and Occupational Health, with the presentation of work accidents at construction sites and their potential causes, it is possible to identify the projects (design, implementation, equipment) and, through the project design, eliminate, control or minimize the risk of accidents, preventing the occurrence of new accidents.

Avaliação dos efeitos sinérgicos sobre o trabalhador exposto a fatores de riscos físicos em simultâneo

Felipe Mendes, Béda Barkokébas Junior, Pedro Arezes


The objective of the research is to evaluate the synergistic effect on the exposed worker simultaneously the whole body vibration, heat stress and noise. For the research will be carried out cognitive tests with machine operators throughout the working day, as well as collection of whole body vibration data, noise and temperature. With the statistical modelling data is intended to understand the combined effect of these agents on selective attention of the operator. The study is in its datagathering phase. The findings may point to new strategies for occupational assessments, as well as a reinterpretation of the limits of tolerance practiced in future research.

Avaliação dos Riscos psicossociais percebidos pelos trabalhadores das empresas de limpeza em Portugal

Pedro Carrana, Marta Pinto


This study was motivated by the question: How do the workers in the cleaning industry in Portugal perceive psychosocial risks associated with the performance of their duties? To this end, we used the assessment tool FPSICO, built for official use of the National Institute of Seguridad and Hygiene en el Trabajo of Spain (INSHT), in five companies specialized in cleaning that represent a significant share both in terms of turnover as in number of workers in the sector.The results showed that in eight of the nine factors evaluated, workers in cleaning sector in Portugal mainly realize appropriate risk situations. The only value mostly perceived as inadequate, was recorded on Participation/Supervision factor (PS), which refers to the power of decision on the job and on concrete tasks. We conclude that the workers perceive high levels of risk related situations especially about their freedom for decide on specific aspects of the work, which is constrained by the apparently strict supervision of their duties, which leads workers to question their role in the organization.

Coffee Drinks – Changing Patterns of Ingestion of Bioactive Compounds?

Marzieh Moeenfard, Nuno Borges, Alejandro Santos, Arminda Alves


Coffee contains multitude chemicals that depending on doses involved, it may possess beneficial or detrimental effect on human health. Along with caffeine, coffee beverage is a rich source of many other ingredients, in particular chlorogenic acids and diterpenes. Several epidemiological studies revealed that coffee consumption may be associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and liver disease. On the other hand, consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. It should be pointed out that the patterns of ingestion of some bioactive compounds present in coffee may being changed due to the recent habits of consumption as recently user-friendly techniques like capsule and pod gained market share, significantly. Therefor the present study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of traditional and commercial coffee brews in terms of diterpenes and caffeoylquinic acid (CQAs) profiles. For thispurpose, nine coffee brews were extracted and analyzed with HPLC-DAD at 325, 225 and 290 nm for CQAs, cafestol and kahweol, respectively. Generally speaking, by varying the preparation mode, the total diterpenes reduced from 331±2 mg/L (50 mg/150 mL, Arabica boiled coffee) to 0.6±0.1 mg/L (0.1 mg/150 mL, Arabica filter coffee). The contents of three CQAs including 3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA were also evaluated in coffee brews. Average total CQAs content in sample analyzed ranged from 179±4 mg/L (27±1 mg/150 mL of filter coffee) to 1662±19 mg/L (66±1 mg/40 mL of pod coffee). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that coffee brews are potential sources of bioactive compounds such as diterpenes and CQAs. However, the transfer rate of diterpenes and CQAs from roasted and ground coffee to coffee brew is considerably depended on the procedure used to prepare the beverage. Thus, every preparation mode has its own characteristics. According to several studies, moderate coffee consumption is not associated with adverse health effects in healthy adults. However, patient with cardiovascular heart disease should be advised to intake brews with lower diterpene concentration such as filter or instant coffee brews.

Análise Biomecânica da Atividade de Transporte Manual de Bagagem em um Aeroporto Brasileiro

Luciano Monteiro, José Wendel Santos, Jéssica Barreto, Viviana Santos, Veruschka Franca, Odelsia Alsina


The aim of this study was to assess the actual working conditions of baggage agents at airports and identify back pain risk factors associated with manual baggage transport in a Brazilian airport. Data were collected through systematic observation of the biomechanics used in carrying out activities, and documented and recorded through photos and filming. Based on the collected data, it developed a biomechanical model of three-dimensional static force prediction in 3DSSPP program to quantify the biomechanical requests during the manual transport of baggage. In addition, NIOSH method was used to estimate the physical overload and determine an ideal weight limit. From this analysis, it can see that the load handled by workers is 66.68% above recommended, emphasizing that there is a high probability of injury to the spine of workers. It is expected that the low back pain risk factors identified in this study sensitize managers so that the ergonomic propositions are implemented, seeing the promotion of health sector workers.

Ergonomic Evaluation of Workstations for International Students at Universities: a Case Study

Beata Mrugalska, Pedro Arezes, Nelson Costa


In this paper the attention is paid to the problem of adjustment of workstations to European students who are more and more willing to enrol at education exchange programs in universities all around Europe. With this aim, six classrooms and six auditoriums in two universities were evaluated considering the anthropometric data of the students. The results of the investigation showed that most of workstations in both universities are not appropriate for 5th and 95th percentile of the analysed populations. Thus, there is a need to adjust these workstations to their potential users and, accordingly, to eliminate the mismatch and provide students with workstation able to allow them to adopt natural resting postures.

Uma visão geral das intervenções e ações tomadas por um órgão regional de Segurança e Saúde no Brasil

Denise D. Muniz, Maria Bernadete F. V. de Melo, Maria do Socorro Márcia L. Souto, Rafaela Guedes, Flávio Rique


The Permanent Regional Committee on Conditions and Environment of Work in the Construction Industry (PRC / CPR-PB in Portuguese) was created in 1996, through the reformulation of the Regulatory Standard nº 18 (NR-18, of the Ministry of Work and Employment - Brazil), which the purpose is to provide a constant dialogue on the conditions and environment in the construction industry throughout Brazil. This paper describes interventionists actions accomplished by the PRC of Paraíba that favor the Safety and Health at Work (SHW) in the Construction Industry. Through bibliographic research and documental analysis of recorded minutes in forums held monthly by the Committee, in João Pessoa/PB, it was showed up relevant experience reports for improving work conditions and environment and also quality of life at construction sites. Among those actions, there are: presentation of lectures, promotion of qualification courses and training for workers, preparation of educational programs for managers of construction companies, execution of studies on uniforms, the Committee’s intervention in the creation of Municipal Law nº 12.814/2014 that established the Green April campaign across the country and also the elaboration of the Program of Electrical Accident Reduction in the Construction Industry, called PEAR (PRAE in Portuguese). It can be concluded that the work accomplished by CPR/PB, in its 19 years of operation, has been productive and responsible for improvements aimed at SHW and its actions has achieved nationally recognized results.

An Ergonomic Cart Design for Occupational Health Promotion at a Food Manufacturing Company in Iran

Hassan Sadeghi Naeini, Neda Salehi, Mahboobeh Sadeghi Naeini


One of the prevalence activities among industrial sectors' worker in the developing countries is manual lifting tasks and other related physical activities. These sorts of activities are known as one of the main risk factors of Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs).In this case study the mentioned tasks were focused in a food manufacturing company in Tehran-Iran in which there are some kinds of plants. Some parts of workers' activities including lifting, lowering and carrying the boxes and bulky body packages. In the sesame seeds cleaning and peeling plant, some of the workers should transfer some amounts of sesames from centrifuge as an origin to kilns as a destination area by carrying the carts and also lifting the tank to empty sesames into furnaces. In this study, the psychophysical aspects of activity were assessed by NMQ, and anthropometry measurement was done among the sampled workers. OWAS method was also used to assess the body postures. The gathered data and in-depth observation showed the necessity of cart design to improve workers health in terms of ergonomic factors. Based on the mentioned assessment and also anthropometric data a new cart was design considering with economics limitations. By this new cart lifting stress and pushing tasks would be changed to better condition.

A perspectiva do ensino de Ergonomia nos cursos de design de moda no Brasil

Gabriela Nakayama, Suzana Martins, Laura Bezerra Martins


This article presents a brief diagnosis of the teaching scenario of Ergonomic, in Fashion design graduations courses, in Brazil. The study intends to analyze the lack of ergonomic factors in the market and its origins, pursuing an explanation in the root of the application of Ergonomic principles and techniques, which means, the base of the graduation educational system.

Exposição Simultânea a Vibrações e Ruído de Baixa Frequência em Mecânicos de Aeronaves

Miguel Corticeiro Neves, Ângela Leal, Mariana Alves-Pereira, Rita Canotilho, Helena Ribeiro


Vibroacoustic disease has been diagnosed in some people who are more sensitive to the different manifestations of noise, regardless of it’s intensity and frequency. However, it seems to occur more frequently as a result of exposure to low intensity noise and low frequency. Nevertheless, it’s not only the noise that contributes to this disease, as it’s name indicates. It is necessary to take into account the vibrations which people who exhibit symptoms of this disease are subject to. When someone is exposed to excessive noise and vibrations together, especially when they are low frequency, negative effects inside the body may be enhanced, particularly if the frequencies resonance with the vibration frequencies of different organs and parts of the human body. The present work aims to verify the relationship between the symptoms presented by a group of frontline mechanics of operational air bases, and noise and vibration conditions to which they are subject to. Measurements of noise and vibrations are underway in all operational units of the Portuguese Air Force and at the same time the symptoms presented by the group of mechanics on the analysis are being studied. At this time there is still only partial conclusions, but over the next four months all measurements will be completed and the process of analyzing all the data will be carried out.

Estudo de Análise de Risco Tecnológico de um Projeto Multifamiliar Adjacente a uma Área Industrial

Marcelo Nóbrega, Airton Lima, Luiz Aguiar, Anna Magdaleno


Technological risk is defined as the potential occurrence of harmful events in short, medium and long terms as a result of investment decisions in the productive structure. Social risk is the one that a group of people present in the vicinity of a hazardous situation runs in a defined period of time. The individual risk is cumulative and geographic; and is expressed by means of risk contours – also called iso-risk. The objective of this project was to evaluate a case study of technological inverse risk analysis of a multifamily predominantly in an industrial area. The method used in this paper was documentary research. Social calculated risk on the real estate development was considered tolerable by Instituto Estadual de Ambiente (INEA) criteria. The individual risk generated two iso-risk curves: aluminum company and natural gas pipelines from the local utility. In the first part, some project building blocks would be encompassed by risk curves of natural gas pipelines. After readjusting the project, it can be seen that the building blocks were not encompassed by the outer individual risk curves enabling project approval. From the results of the Risk Analysis Study for the environmental feasibility of property development, an overhaul of architectural design was necessary to better quality of life in view of the social interest of the project on site.

Uma abordagem de sucesso no ensino da Usabilidade

Isabel L. Nunes


Usability is a key topic in Ergonomics, which is directly related with the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of human-system interactions. In the context of Industrial Engineering these features may have impacts not only on productivity but also on occupational safety, since errors can result in incidents and accidents. User-Centred Design is a framework that promotes a systematic application of scientific principles in the design of human-system interactions. Teaching Usability to students of Industrial Engineering and Management program applying a learn-by-doing approach helps reaching the objective of developing competencies, knowledge and attitudes in these future professionals, regarding this field of Ergonomics. The paper describes and gives some insights on the benefits of the teaching-learning methodology adopted on a course offered by the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, analyses the results of the last four years and discusses some observed trends. Finally it presents some conclusions, noting some consequences of the introduction of this thematic in the Industrial Engineering and Management program.

Estresse Térmico na Indústria da Construção Civil: Uma Breve Revisão

Tanise Fuckner de Oliveira, Ieda Claudia Wictor, Antonio Augusto de Paula Xavier, Ariel Orlei Michaloski


The construction workers require much physical effort in their activities, and are exposed outdoors to direct sunlight, high temperatures, humidity and more. These factors can lead to heat stress, which can bring many health hazards for workers. Therefore, this article seeks to review the studies on heat stress on workers in the construction industry. For this, a systematic review in databases was conducted in the proposed theme in search of the methodologies used and developed for the non-occurrence of thermal stress. Basically the studies developed in this area are field studies and the articles found in the search were reviewed and the main alternative presented items for the non-occurrence of heat stress is the alternation between periods of work and rest.

Caracterização do Estresse Organizacional nos Trabalhadores de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior

Claudia Dias Ollay, Yara Juliano, Flavio Koiti Kanazawa


Background: stress is a public health problem that brings high costs to organizations (private and public), the society and the employee, itself, which falls ill, need to take time off work, going to earn less, arises the feeling of worthlessness, and in most cases the onset of depression. Objectives: to verify organizational work factors predisposing to stress and, identify the presence and stage of stress in workers of a university. Methods: the sample was composed of 296 workers, divided into two groups: teachers and other professionals, and both genders. The research instrument used was a self-applicable questionnaire. Statistical tests chi-square and Fischer’s exact were applied. Results: it was evidenced as a predisposing factor stress the high job demands. Stressor was minimized by high job decision latitude. The negative impact on health is confirmed by the identification of the presence of stress resistance phase. Conclusions: the quadrant in which it found the most different professional groups and genders was the "active work", as well as the resistance stage stress.

Health and Safety on Construction Sites in Cape Verde

Paulo Palhinha


This paper presents part of a study conducted in Cape Verde to improve the knowledge of the reality of health and safety in construction sites. The collected data was provided by companies technicians about application of the legalrequirements for safety and health in construction sites. With the treatment of the data was possible to know information about the training received by the workers, the numbers of fatal accidents, the inspections from the labour authority, the workers with the responsibility on health and safety and the safety and health plans in constructions sites. This study includes a critical analysis on the results based on the information obtained in the available bibliography, communication with the technicians and the direct observation of the construction sites in the territory, questioning whether, in fact, the numbers are better than the working conditions or if the reality triggers divergent information.

Occupational noise in urban buses - A short review

Luciana Pedrosa, Maria Luísa Matos, João Baptista


The aim of this study is review systematically relevant literature in order to explore noise exposure in professional bus drivers. The search was performed based on PRISMA statement methodology. Using a set of key words as occupational noise; noise exposure, urban bus and driver and exclusion and eligibility criteria, nine studies were screened under the subject in analysis. These studies were analysed in order to extract information about: sources of noise, methodologies applied to noise measurement, noise effects, prevention and control of noise. All researches found use the methodology presented in ISO standards (ISO 5128:1980, ISO 1999:1990 and ISO 9612:2009). In some of the analyzed studies, bus drivers were exposed to high noise levels, which can be influenced by the type of bus, age and number of passengers inside the bus.

Avaliação de Riscos Integrada – Riscos Psicossociais associados a LMERT

José Oliveira Pinto, Mário Basto, Miguel Corticeiro Neves


Recently, psychosocial risks have been recognized as one of the greatest challenges for the health and safety of workers. However, in Portugal, information on the psychosocial conditions of the workers was virtually unknown till nowadays. So the need to evaluate psychosocial risks related to work, especially in the economic activities of increased risk, such as the defence industry. Therefore, the study aims to identify risk factors felled by the Portuguese Air Force Aircraft Mechanics, whose activities can trigger situations of psychosocial risk. For data collection was used one survey sent by mail to all staff of mechanics from the various squadrons who work on aircraft maintenance and also a direct observation of the activity carried out on-the-job. The results showed that some of the risk factors studied were identified as potential triggers of psychosocial risk at work and that may be related to health problems reported by workers. The study demonstrated the need to implement a prevention program focused on identified psychosocial risk factors, and the importance of the participation of institutions (management) and workers in developing more effective strategies for the identification and monitoring of psychosocial risks. The development of modern aircraft, whether high performance fighters, instruction planes, transport aircraft and helicopters capable of reaching very high performances are subject to handling a very high level of electronic, mechanical and structural requirement. As a result, the need for increased and more rigorous technical intervention, forces a bigger demanding in a physical and psychosocial perspective. It is intended, with the completion of this work, answer the main question that is at the root of it: - The Aircraft Maintenance activities contribute to the appearance of “Muscle Skeletal Injuries by Repeated Work in Aircraft Mechanics - and these may relate to Psychosocial Risks?”

Percepção das Condições Físicas dos Locais de Trabalho dos Controladores de Tráfego Aéreo da FAP e Incidentes de Tráfego Aéreo

Márcia Pereira, Miguel Corticeiro Neves


The safety of military flights in exercises defending Portuguese Airspace depends in large measure on the professionals who manage air traffic, the Air Traffic Controllers (ATC). Incidents and accidents are emerging phenomena without obvious causes in which adjustments to the work system are accepted, but which indicate grave problems in the system, for they point to inadequate or unsafe conditions. Uncomfortable and unsafe workstations can provoke bad posture in which discomfort and physical fatigue can lead to ATC error in the context of Air Traffic. This study analyzes Portuguese Air Force (PAF) ATC activity using a questionnaire, postural analysis, random observations, checklists, and photographic records in real life working conditions. The study confirms the incidence of physical burden and postural constraint caused by ergonomic conditions and the working environment, and seeks to establish possible relationships with air incidents, besides verifying the impact on the health of the ATC. Workstation analysis revealed inadequate furnishings and lighting, insufficient physical space, elevated noise, lack of incentive for continuing education, incorrect ambient temperature, and accumulation and misdirection of functions. These match the ATC reports as to discomforts such as physical exhaustion, low back pain, burning in the eyes, visual tiredness and fatigue, irritability and stress. These factors appear to contribute to deficiencies in Procedure, Airprox and Facility in the analysis of incidents of PoAF Air Traffic.

Conceptual design of a medical device for transference of bedridden people in domestic environments – preliminary studies

Paulo Pereira, Karolina Bezerra, José Machado, Filomena Soares, Vitor Carvalho


This paper presents the preliminary studies of the conceptual design of a medical device used mainly for the transference of bedridden people. The principle of the design is undertaken in order to maximize the safety and comfort of the bedridden and the caregiver in the actions of transference and hygiene. The equipment is easily adapted to the physical structures available at home, as well as in the health and social institutions, which are responsible and provide medical treatment and accompaniment to the bedridden. With the use of these equipment, it is expected to increase the quality of life and wellbeing of the bedridden and the caregivers.

Cartografia de Risco de Incêndio Urbano no Quarteirão da “Viela do Anjo | Porto” - Estudo de Suscetibilidade

Silvério Pinto, Vitor Primo, João Costa, Paulo Oliveira, Duarte Ricardo


This study is the risk analysis Fire Quarter "Alley Angel" of Porto, Portugal. They applied two risk analysis methods in this block from the historic district: the Gretener and Arica method. With the objective of comparing these two methods so that we can determine what is the most effective method to be applied across the old town of Porto. The final result will be represented cartographically by a susceptibility letter. It can be concluded that the buildings located in the historic centers have increased susceptibility to the occurrence of fire, so its rehabilitation should take into account this reality.

Redução das quedas de doentes num hospital: a influência das alterações do envolvimento ambiental e organizacional

Tânia Pinto, Florentino Serranheira


Patient falls in hospitals have mostly multifactorial causes. Research is mainly centred in the identification of patient (intrinsic) risk factors. Other risk factors from the physical and organizational environment are frequently unrecognized, that doesn’t allow identifying the potential risk that they can have on falls. This research aims to understand the influence of environmental and organizational hospital changes in the reduction of patient’s falls. In order to achieve this objective, we analysed information from a hospital falls database from 2012 to 2014. There has been a total 361 falls recorded during 2012-2014. Falls occur mainly in General Internment (37%), followed by Department of Surgery (15%) and Emergency Room (13%). During this period (2012-2014) nevertheless the increasing of patient safety hospital reports there was a falls reduction of 55%. Patient health conditions contributed to the reduction in 46%, (OR=0.505; CI 95%= 0.254–1.005, p=0.052). Patient falls related with environmental and organizational risk factors have a reduction of 67% (OR=1.968; CI 95%= 1.077– 3.597, p=0.028). Facilities changes and equipment renewal contributed positively to falls reduction during this period. Patient’s falls may be also be reduced if at organizational level there are specific preventive measures for patients with a high risk of falling.

Prevenção do acidente baseada no comportamento crítico: estudo de caso em uma indústria de bebidas em Pernambuco/Brasil

Fernanda Portela, Eliane Lago


The risk of workplace accidents is inherent to the worker’s activity. These accidents may compromise the competitiveness and the companies’ lifespan, for if the costs are raised, productivity decreases due to the departure of collaborators, besides affecting the company’s image regarding society, family members and the country. In Brazil, official statistics from the year 2013 show an amount of 717.311 workplace accidents, considering notified accidents. Basic preventive measures could avoid the occurrence of these accidents and decrease the elevated cost to be paid by the entire society. The best way to avoid accidents is prevention, and to enable it, there is the need to study and implement improvement measures to avoid reoccurrence of accidents. The Program of Safe Behaviour seeks, through measures regarding behaviour, improve results in health, safety and environment. The goal of this work was to implement and evaluate a Program of Safe Behaviour Management through a change of conduct seeking an accident-free environment in a beverage factory. In order to do such, the Program of Critical Behaviour was implemented in the bottling sector of the beverage factory, and then, questionnaires were applied for the coordinators and operators of the area in order to determine the knowledge and evolution through the involvement of coordinators and operators. A decrease of 17% in the number of accidents was verified, besides an improvement of the preventive attitude of collaborators. It is expected with this research to be able to help and encourage the factory’s other sectors to implement the Program of Critical Behaviour in order to improve the safety performance of the areas, thus decreasing workplace accidents.

Bathroom Accessibility Problems for Reduced Mobility Individuals

Cristina Madureira dos Reis, Carlos Rafael da Silva Oliveira, Paula Luisa Braga da Silva


This study intends to assess the accessibility of handicapped individuals to a public university bathroom, in Portugal. The main purpose was to verify the extent to which public institutions are sensitized to issues of accessibility for all, despite the existence of adequate legislation to that end. Therefore measurements were made in order to evaluate the necessary distances for mobility and accessibility, and also, the placement of side support bars lift seat, signage, suitable discharge devices, etc were verified. A person with a wheelchair proceeded to the referred measurements and all the necessary parameters were analyzed. As a conclusion for this study it was found that there is already an awareness of accessibility and mobility issues, however there are improvements to be made, namely in the signage, the placement of side support bars, the type of suitable discharge buttons, the height of the switches and of the alarm systems.

Utilização de Scooters de Mobilidade Elétrica: a independência alcançada é acompanhada pela segurança desejada

António Ribeiro


In Portugal the people in age group with 65 or more years represents 20% of the Portuguese population and approximately 10% are over 75 years (INE/2014).The electric mobility scooter (EMS) is a transport device that was created by the industry to respond to needs of people with reduced mobility. According to INE, it is expected a significant increase in the elderly population in the coming years with a consequent increase in the number of users of EMS.This study aimed the characterizing of the current situation in Portugal and analysis of risk prevention management during operation of these devices. Wanted realize through qualitative analysis of the collected information, if achieved independence is followed by the desired safety, when the elderly makes use of this transport devices to move. To achieve this goal was made to literature search, gathered technical information of this type of equipment and afterward applied individual inquiries in three municipalities of Santarem district. The analysis of the information gathered revealed the absence of national studies in this area of knowledge and that risk prevention measures are mainly focused on product safety (equipment) and are unweighted human factors and physical conditions of each place.

Sistema de Monitorização Remota da Temperatura Corporal para Crianças – Requisitos do Produto

Marisa Ribeiro, Vitor Carvalho, Paulo Simões, Estela Vilhena, Dário Teixeira


Monitoring devices associated with health begin to stand out in the market as an asset in the anticipation and caution of possible critical health situations. Based on the interaction between the caregiver and the patient, and with the partnership of the Portuguese company EDIN, it was developed a monitoring body temperature device, minimally invasive, aimed to children. This paper presents the specifications for the product development. It was performed an analysis of the problem as well as a study of the existing commercial products, accomplished with a survey, in order to enumerate the product requirements.

Boas Práticas de Higienização das Mãos em emergência Pré-Hospitalar

Ana Rocha, Cristina Santos, João Paulo Figueiredo, Ana Ferreira


The practice of Prehospital Health care exposes the pre-hospital emergency technician contaminants that can damage their health and well-being as well as worsen the health of patients. Thus become imperative to assess adherence to hygiene measures of hands by the affections Professionals to pre-hospital health care in order to prevent the Healthcareassociated infections. For this evaluation were made and implemented questionnaires to observe the the hands hygiene practices of while providing patient care in Ansião Fire Department, Fire Department of Figueiró dos Vinhos and Fire Department of Pombal in order to understand whether the best practices are adopted hand hygiene during the provision of primary health care. These questionnaires aim to see if a professional category, gender and the study of local influence adherence to hygiene measures of hands. We concluded that a total of 65 TAT 53.3% adheres to all the hygiene measures hand while 60% of the 25 observed TAS does not adhere to all the hygiene measures of hands. Although no association pattern can conclude that Ambulance Transport Crew Member tend to have a good behavior hygiene practices most suitable hands that Ambulance Rescue Crewman.

A protocol proposal on calculation of the metabolic rate for surgeons in an operating room

Nelson Rodrigues, Alberto Miguel, Senhorinha Teixeira, J. Santos Baptista


Thermal comfort is a subject of great importance for the well-being and productivity of people in general, thus, a good work environment is something that should be sought whenever possible. Within this subject, the determination of the metabolic rate has great importance, although its calculation can be a laborious task. In this work, a protocol is presented to calculate the metabolic rate of a surgeon when performing his work in an operating room. The clothing, environmental conditions as well as the different tasks of the surgeon were collected through observation of three surgeries in a Portuguese hospital. These conditions were then recreated on a controlled environment of a climatic chamber and a set of tasks to reproduce the physical workload performed by the surgeon. In this controlled environment, the metabolic rate was measured using oxygen measurement and the results were compared with ISO 8996:2004 standard values. The obtained results showed a good approach to this standard.

Severity of occupational accidents in petrol stations

Juan Carlos Rubio Romero, María del Carmen Pardo Ferreira, Antonio Lopez-Arquillos, Jesus A. Carrillo-Castrillo


The objective of this research is to develop an analysis of occupational accidents in retail trade of combustible for automotive in specialized stores bases on a total number of 7769 registered accident in a period of 5 years. Variables studied were severity of accidents and, injuries. Contingency tables methodology was carried on using SPSS program in its version 19. The injury “whole body” obtain the worst result. Preventive measure should be adapted in service stations to prevent accident related with most important injuries.

Do OHS Staffs understand problem of psychosocial risk at work? Pilot study

Joanna Sadlowska-Wrzesinska


The hereby publication presents the results of the pilot study on the knowledge and attitudes of health and safety staffs in the field of psychosocial risks in the workplace. The pilot study took a form of the survey and was conducted among safety professionals from 33 different workplaces. The results confirm the earlier observation of the work environment made by the author - despite the published results of Europe-wide studies and large-scale social campaigns on psychosocial occupational hazards procedures for dealing with psychosocial risks are still not being introduced and implemented in Polish companies. Moreover, the problems associated with occupational stress, violence, harassment and discrimination are very well recognized, but treated as subjects difficult, and undesirable. Daily practice shows that the subject of psychosocial risks is marginalized, making it impossible to properly carry out a risk assessment and to develop effective prevention program.

Trend analysis of occupational accidents in Spain considering economic and regulatory changes

Ana Sanchez, Vicente Gallego, Sebastian Martorel


Occupational accidents are of public concern as they cause significant health problems and economic burdens for employees, employers and the community in general. Consequently, regulatory authorities of many countries have developed different laws and regulations to prevent and protect against occupational accidents. On the other hand, different studies have shown the impact of economic crisis in the occurrence of occupational accidents. In this context, the objective of the paper is to analyse in an integrated manner the influence of both economic and regulatory factors on ongoing evolution of the incidence rate of occupational accidents over time. In particular, it is performed a trend analysis of incidence rates of occupational accidents as a function of some regulatory changes affecting coverage of occupational accidents of workers and economic growth during the period 2000 to 2014 in Spain. A Poisson regression model is used to model the relationship between the incidence rate and the main factors considered.

Gestão de Projeto NP ISO 21500:2012 - Implementação das Medidas de Autoproteção no Laboratório Ensaios Físicos da Mota-Engil

Eva Santiago, Marisa Lago


The Project Management is an essential management tool for business success and the managers of the organizations that implement it.With a competitive, and increasingly complex and demanding projects, it becomes pressing the correct control and planning thereof, as this minimizes the risk associated with not meeting the goals and objectives of the projects. In addition to good management of budgets, schedules, timelines and financial resources, it is important to assess the applicability of various tools and techniques in all phases of a project, such as initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing. The proposed issue is to scope the Self-protection measures, a Physical Testing Laboratory, having been made in this sense an exhaustive search, with the premise to follow as a guideline to current legislation, where the practices were to the effect applied to level of tools and techniques according to NP ISO 21500: 2012.

Implementação do SGQ na Esgalhadelas - Estudo de caso

Eva Rafael Coelho Santiago, Luis Azevedo Azevedo, Afonso Albuquerque, João Martins


Although major advances in the development of technical and management methods, which mostly have been observed both in scientific studies both in market practices, we have witnessed in recent times of economic crisis at a steady disappearance of companies. In most cases, this disappearance is due to the absence or inefficiency of the management systems, suitable for business purposes. Based on recent changes in ISO 9001 and the further integration of the Quality Management System with Management Systems, these are presented as business success engines. With this document we intend to present an approach to the organization's context in implementing a quality management system in an organization and demonstrate the importance of the company's business environment in successful implementation. Mode mechanisms have been developed to analyze the positive and negative interference within the organization, the threats and opportunities of the environment, which affect the strategic business alignment, between which resulted in a correlation matrix between what is intended and what is of the various elements desired. 2015, and its documental structure: a description of the network processes considered in the implementation of the quality system necessary to fulfill the general requirements of ISO 9001 was performed.

Efeito do Tolueno e Ruído na Génese de Perda Auditiva Ocupacional

Ana Baltazar Santos, Pedro Arezes


A responsabilidade pela perda auditiva ocupacional tem sido atribuída quase exclusivamente à exposição ao ruído. No entanto, existem outros fatores de risco para a saúde auditiva como a exposição química a produtos ototóxicos. A exposição a substâncias ototóxicas pode causar lesões no sistema auditivo, comprometendo a capacidade auditiva. O tolueno é um solvente orgânico bastante utilizado em contexto industrial e que apresenta características ototóxicas. No local de trabalho, as exposições ao ruído e ao tolueno existem e ocorrem, simultaneamente, com bastante frequência. Não existem factos que evidenciem que os danos causados pela exposição combinada destes dois fatores é similar aos danos originados pela exposição isolada de cada um. Este projeto de investigação pretende compreender e caracterizar a exposição ocupacional ao ruído e ao tolueno a que os trabalhadores, numa indústria de recauchutagem de pneus, estão sujeitos; se este tipo de exposição é causadora de danos na capacidade auditiva da população-alvo e dotar a empresa de informação relevante para uma adequação da intervenção no âmbito da higiene, segurança e saúde no trabalho da empresa. O delineamento metodológico deste projeto passa pela avaliação do nível de ruído, concentração de tolueno, concentração de ácido hipúrico, capacidade e perda auditiva da população-alvo no local de trabalho. Este projeto impulsiona a continuidade de estudos nesta área, propiciando uma ação em saúde mais precoce e efetiva. Atualmente as estratégias de prevenção utilizadas com enfoque na prevenção da perda auditiva deveriam ser mais abrangentes tendo em conta todos os possíveis fatores de risco nomeadamente, a exposição a substâncias ototóxicas.

Riscos ocupacionais em piscinas públicas

Cristina Santos, Esmeralda Santos


The search for pools to sports, recreational and therapeutic activities have suffered a gradual increase, at which various institutions, public or private, have attempted to respond to this request by placing at the disposal of prospective users a large number of swimming pools. However, several issues arise as to its quality, structural characteristics and operating conditions. All of these situations, potential dangers in terms of Public Health, alia-if a legal framework of restricted scope. According to the World Health Organization, the main aim of occupational health services is the promotion of working conditions to ensure the highest degree of quality of life at work, protecting the health of workers, promoting the physical, mental and social well-being, preventing and controlling accidents and illnesses by reducing risk conditions. The Normative Circular nº 14 DA of 21.08.2009 management of health came to establish the health surveillance Program. In this sense, the program is being applied in public pools in the country, developed by the public health Units of the groupings of health centres. This study on development in a municipality of the central part of the country, with the support, training institutions, officials of the Department of environmental health at the school of health technology. The target population consists of 2 public pools covered. The objectives of this study are the evaluation of the main risks to the health of users and workers arising from exposure during 10 years. Are also objectives of the study the promotion of the health and safety of users and workers in pools. The risk assessment was done through the analysis of microbiological laboratory results and physico-chemical obtained in the course of health surveillance the quality of recreational waters. The source of water is the public network in both tanks. The tank is sporty and the tank B is for learning and recreation, according to the classification given by the National Council for Quality nº 23/93. The tank is mostly used by children and the elderly. In the tank the 91 samples were collected for microbiological and physico-chemical analysis 27. In the tank B, 89 samples were collected for microbiological analysis and 25 for physicochemical analyses. We conclude that there is a risk of infections, and that it is imperative to carry out preventive maintenance operations and strict control, with regular frequency. Stresses the importance of the implementation of risk management plans, evaluating in detail its characteristics, in order to establish appropriate measures of prevention and control.

The influence of job rotation on wrist position sense

Joana Santos, Inês Mesquita, Pedro Monteiro, Rubim Santos, João Santos Baptista, Mário Vaz


The effectiveness of job rotation in industrial environment is still controversial, namely during tasks with high functional similarity, as assembly tasks. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of job rotation on wrist position sense acuity among experienced assembly workers. Eight healthy assembly workers divided in two groups (four assembly workers performed task rotation and four assembly workers performed tasks with no rotation) participated in this field study. Manifestations of muscle fatigue of wrist flexors and extensors muscles were obtained by surface electromyography during a standardized test contraction, while wrist position sense errors were assessed by electrogoniometry. After a workweek, despite not statistically significant, wrist flexors muscles in the no rotation group showed EMG signs of fatigue. The two groups showed a trend to increase position error for flexion after a workweek. Future research should include a higher number of participants and other techniques to evaluate muscle fatigue and their impact on positon sense acuity.

Resíduos da Construção Civil: Uma Questão de Saúde e Segurança no Canteiro de Obra

Robson Arruda dos Santos, Gastão Coêlho de Aquino Filho, Bruna Sampaio Matias, Francisco Alyson Vieira Braga, Cinthya Santos da Silva, Pedro Henrique Gomes da Silva


Two themes are quite currently discussed: safety the work and environmental management. The challenge for companies is to adapt its production in order to meet these demands. Thus, this article presents the results of an extension project of the Federal Institute of Paraíba / Brazil, which aimed to present the topics mentioned simply to construction workers and show the feasibility of the integrated politic of Health Management and Occupational Safety and environmental management. The study was conducted on construction sites in the city of Cajazeiras / Paraíba / Brazil, where the project team organized training / discussions about the topics covered. The target audience includes construction workers, owners / builders and Cooperative of Recyclable Materials. One of the main results was the active participation of workers in discussion and criticism of the building concepts and relate their experiences in safety the work and environmental management. Were visited four construction sites, in all the companies it was possible to form the partnership with the cooperative pickers, which began to collect all the recyclable waste from the construction site. Thus, it was shown that in the same environment, with an integrated team is possible to treat so associated with security politic at work and environmental management at the construction site.

Uma Avaliação sobre Acidentes de Trabalho na Construção de Rodovias Brasileiras

Wellington Santos, Marcelo Nóbrega, Anna Magdaleno, José Fernandes


The new roads construction in brazilian territory have provided many studies within engineering. A study about roads work accidents rates related to road construction in Brazil is a subject of significance for Safety and Hygiene at Work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the data from the National Social Security Institute (INSS) and connect it with the DNIT (National Department of Infrastructure and Transport) data. So compare and evaluate these indicators in the road construction sector in reference to the work accident occurred in the country and in the regions is the purpose of our study.The method used in this paper was documentary research based in institutional data bank. the Northeast was the region with the worst performance in relation to others regions and the national average. Moreover, this study also aimed to the foundation of the theoretical study of the sensitivity of the risks that road workers are exposed by carrying out a case study on the incidence of accidents related to the length of road constructed by the workers for 11 years. Finally, this study allowed a critical and realistic way reflect on the safety and health problems to which these workers are exposed.

Avaliação dos desperdícios alimentares em Jardins de Infância

Rita Seco, Cristina Santos, João Paulo Figueiredo, Ana Ferreira


Food is considered a vital factor and a major determinant of health. It must have a wide range of nutrients essential to the growth and development of human beings. In recent years, the World Health Organization and many other Portuguese organizations have shown concern with the quality of meals served in schools. For the evaluation of food waste and children’s satisfaction in the kindergartens, an analytical observational study was developed with a descriptive and correlational level II, being a non-probability sample and sampling technique for convenience. The target population consisted of 46 children, between four and five years old in three kindergartens of the country's central region, particularly in Coimbra. The assessment of food waste was made by weighing the leftovers and debris, assessing the satisfaction of children face the meal served by a questionnaire made children and was also rated the most pleasant food for children. In kindergarten A in average weekly waste amounts to 4.90% of the meals, while the waste in kindergarten B is 13.90% and in C 3.14%. These figures are normal for kindergarten A and C, in which the percentage of meal waste is reduced. In kindergarten B, the weekly rate is higher than recommended, which may mean that meals are being neither well prepared, nor cooked according to the satisfaction of children. According to these results the adoption of new strategies is paramount in designing menus and promoting cafeteria meals to reduce food waste and to increase the children’s satisfaction.

The impact of work shift on psychosocial risks: a case study

Andrea Seixas, Tânia Ferreira, Manuela Vieira Silva, Matilde A. Rodrigues


The present study aims to analyse the impact of the work shift in the prevalence of Burnout syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress. This study was conducted in a metal-mechanic industry, covering a total of 175 workers of the production sector, spread over three shifts (morning, afternoon and night). The Burnout syndrome was assessed by the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure and the anxiety, depression and stress were measured through the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Results showed that while workers experienced a low level of Burnout and stress, they were found to exhibit higher levels of anxiety and depression. Against expectations, morning shift presented higher levels of psychosocial risks. However, no significant differences were found between the three shifts. These results can be explained by several factors such the age of the workers, years of work or type of employment contract. This study emphasizes the need to implement measures to reduce workers' exposure in the morning shift.

Avaliação de Riscos Psicossociais na Manutenção da Esquadra 502 - Caso de Estudo para Operadores de Cabine

Carla Sequeira, Miguel Corticeiro Neves


Currently, the psychosocial risks thematic is recognized as one of the greatest challenges for occupational health and safety, as they are able to lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical workers health causing significant consequences for organizations and as a consequence for society. The occupational safety and health legislation confers a central place of the risks assessment in preventive approaches. This study aimed at evaluating psychosocial risks in the maintenance 502 squad, OC strand. Such assessment was taken by Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire II (COPSOQII). The processing of data resulting from COPSOQ II was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Participated in this research 21 Flight Deck Operator, aged between 25 and 55 years. The analysis of psychometric characteristics was made using the internal consistency coefficient Cronbach's alpha. Results from a small sample, since the universe is 37 booth operators, allowed only identify some risks present and some consequences of exposure to psychosocial risks, not giving us information on how to intervene more adequately taking into account all labour context and complexity of missions. In future research will be relevant that take a more comprehensive approach than merely explanatory, focused on workers' perspectives, and understanding the characteristics and work context in order to better understand situations and later to intervene appropriately.

Hazardous occupational health & safety issues in quarries

Shahriairi Mohammad, Gokay M.K


Mining is without doubt a hazardous activity. But to what degree of hazard it is, depends on different parameters including geographical area. To understand the level of occupational life risk in open-pit mine activities, the following two studies could give an overview about the safety situation in this field. Kecejevic et al. (2007) verified the time period around 1995-2005 and they reported that 120 miners were killed every year in the United States. Similar but most shocking statistics are given by Jianjun in 2007 and he wrote that according to official statistics, the fatal accidents from 1949 to 2007 have been approximately 250 000 in China. It should be noted that, although many efforts have been made to improve the occupational safety worldwide through using right technology and well trained operators, but still a lot of work is needed to be done to reach to an acceptable level of occupational risk and safety in this field. In this paper the major parameters influencing the occupational safety in a quarry in Sweden were studied.

Avaliação da Radiação Gama Total e Taxa de Dose de Radiação Gama nos Spas Termais Portugueses

Ana Sofia Silva, Maria de Lurdes Dinis


Humans are exposed to radiation from natural and artificial sources. Exposure to radiation from natural sources contributes with approximately 81 % to the annual effective dose received by the population being the remaining 19 % from artificial sources. From the natural sources of radiation the major dose comes from radon exposure (43 %). The objective of this study was to evaluate the total gamma radiation and gamma radiation dose on sixteen Portuguese thermal spas. Total gamma radiation was acquired with a portable scintillometer (SPP2, SAPHYMO) and gamma dose rate was measured with a Geiger counter (GS3, GAMMA SCOUT). The registered values for total gamma radiation were low in all thermal spas and without any radiometric anomaly. Also, all values were below the reference level applying to indoor external exposure to gamma radiation emitted by building materials of 1 mSv per year.

Iluminação nos Serviços Administrativos, um caso de estudo numa Escola do 2.º e 3.º Ciclo

Aurora Silva, João Guterres, Isabel Loureiro, Nelson Costa


With the increase in administrative services activities arises the need to adapt the working spaces in order to make its environment motivating and improve workers performance, taking into account their occupational health. Working space proper lighting is an important factor that directly impacts the safety, health, welfare and worker's comfort, which in cases of poor lighting can translate into visual fatigue, stress and physical exertion. This study tries to identify and evaluate the lighting conditions that influence the visual comfort of workers in an office or administrative environment. The study sample consists of six individuals in an administrative sector work place with eight computers, at a school in Guimarães. For the measurement of illuminance and uniformity were followed European standards EN 12464 (2002), DIN 5035 (1990) and ISO 8995-1 (2002). The results obtained indicate illumination values bellow the recommended by the European standard for the tasks analysed.

O Impacto do Transporte Ferroviário de Mercadorias Perigosas no Concelho de Matosinhos em 2012 – Estudo de Caso

Eduardo Silva, Paulo Oliveira


In this study, entitled, "Railway Transport of Dangerous Commodities in Matosinhos City Council in 2012 - Case Study", was intended to analyze the reality possible, of dangerous good transported by railway, with departure and arrival of Leixões platform with a view above all the fact that it is located in a dense population center such as the city council of Matosinhos, considering the quantities of matter in circulation and its harmfulness, they were characterized considering the degree of risk and necessary measures to be taken in case of emergency. The methodology used for the preparation of this case study was the collection, gathering and processing of information available on cargo manifests and later its statistical treatment provided by the Municipal Office of Civil Protection of Matosinhos city council. This work reveals the importance of the applicability of manual intervention in emergencies with dangerous substances (MIEMP) in the event of an accident or incident by other civil protection agents or others, in order to minimize potential damage to the general population.

Saúde do trabalhador: análise dos riscos ambientais e doenças ocupacionais em um curtume

Estefânia Paula da Silva, Kamyla Espíndola Gibram Reis, Wemerton Luís Evangelista, Pedro Henrique Silva, Lucas Pimenta Silva Paiva


This study aims to analyze the organization of work, to check the probable occupational diseases and the damage caused to the environment in the performance of activities in a tannery located in southwest Minas Gerais. It was used the case study of qualitative approach. Also it was made an observation of the work and interviews with employees. It was assess the environmental risks have been raised and the likely conditions for each type of risk. In chemical risk, for example, it is emphasized that the use of chromium can cause serious damage to workers' health, such as the development of lung cancer from inhaling large amount of it. Finally, it is concluded that there are serious diseases that can be triggered at work in tannery and, therefore, recommended to the awareness of workers about the Personal Protective Equipment use (PPE) for safety and prevention of occupational health. It was recommended realize a training on the proper use of PPE and the promotion of lectures to raise awareness about the importance of use the PPE in the workplace.

Estudo exploratório sobre a influencia dos compostos polares dos óleos alimentares na segurança alimentar - Caso de estudo

Marisa Silva, Paulo Oliveira, Mónica Dias


One of the most significant aspects of Food Hygiene and Safety (HSA) is connected to the conservation of the features of each food, individually or in association with others until the consume moment. The fried foods in degraded oils can jeopardize food safety and increase public health problems. With the present research study the aim is to try to study the type of control carried out by catering establishments, belonging to a study sample, geographically located in the northern region of Portugal, in what concerns the formation of polar compounds which were originated by using high temperatures in the frying process of food. For a statistical treatment of data, the authors used methods of statistical analysis and exploratory studies (statistical software package SPSS 20.0 and statistical correlations), in the search to meet the aims. We concluded by the obtained results, and considering the practices observed by the assessment, that the frying processes were globally safe, so the consumption of these foods didn´t put into risk the public health.

Gestão da interface trabalho-família e efeitos na satisfação com a vida e na paixão com o trabalho

Cátia Sousa, Gabriela Gonçalves, António Sousa, Tânia Silva, Joana Santos


The work-family (WFC) and family-work (FWC) conflicts together with the guilt arising thereof have a negative effect on well-being, professional, social and family health variables. The literature points to a higher incidence of the values of these variables in females and individuals with children, but these results vary culturally. Given the importance of these variables in occupational and safety health and the few studies with Portuguese samples, we choose to develop a descriptive and correlational study aimed to explore the relationship of WFC - FWC with the feeling of guilt and the relationship with outcomes variables such as life satisfaction and work passion according to the gender and the presence of children. Our results show higher values in the WFC and work-family guilt, in particular in men and individuals with children, as well as a correlation with the obsessive passion and a negative correlation with life satisfaction.

Knowledge scope and education frames of OHS specialists in Poland on example of Technical University of Lodz

Malgorzata Spychala, Marcin Butlewski


The tasks and responsibilities of OHS specialists are changing along with new forms of employment, an increasing labor intensity, a difficult working environment, and thus – new risk factors. A safe and healthy workstation will therefore depend on the level of preparation of OHS specialists to perform these duties. The specified standards of each organization are the basis for assessing the competence of persons who perform, or will perform the given tasks. Having a knowledge of these standards can help prepare students for future tasks performed on the job.

Developments of Safety Science and Safety Management till the End of the 1970s. The Three Mile Island Disaster

Paul Swuste, Coen van Gulijk, Walter Zwaard, Saul Lemkowitz, Jop Groeneweg


Objective: Which general management trends influenced safety management and which safety models, theories and metaphors and management solutions were introduced to explain and control causes of accidents in the period till the Three Mile Island disaster? How did this context influence the safety domain in The Netherlands? Method: The study was limited to articles and documents, written in Dutch and English. Results and conclusions: Dominant management approaches started with classical management from the 19th century, with Taylors’ scientific management from the start of the 20st century as a main component. During the interwar period behavioural management became dominant, based on behaviourism, followed by quantitative management from WOII onwards. After the war modern management was important; a company as an open system, interacting with an environment and external stakeholders. Early in the 20th century, it was the U.S. 'Safety First' movement that marked the starting point of this knowledge development in the sphere of safety managing, with cost reduction and production efficiency as the key drivers. Psychological models and metaphors were used to explain accidents resulting from ‘unsafe acts’. Safety was managed by training and targeting reckless workers, all in line with scientific management. Supported by behavioural management, this approach remained dominant for many years until long after World War II.

Preparação e desenvolvimento de um sistema de gestão da qualidade (NP EN ISO 9001:2008)

Daniela Teixeira, Paulo Oliveira, Vanda Lima


The concern with Quality management started in Japan during the 50’s. Since then, the certification using the ISO 9000 series standard is considered by companies, as a tool that guaranties Quality for their products/services. The current project objective is the preparation and development of the documental support for a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the standard NP EN ISO 9001:2008, for further implementation in a producer company of industrial application components. For that purpose a check-list was created, based on the standard requirements, allowing to identify the existing conditions and development needs in the host company. With the information obtained using the check-list and direct observations of the company’s “modus operandi” “in loco”, the support documentation was developed suitable to its needs and in agreement with the standard requirements. Creating the support documentation is the first step for the implementation and respective continuous improvement process of QMS, leading to the certification of the company’s implemented System.

Estudo exploratório das condições existentes de uma organização versus cumprimento dos requisitos normativos de um sistema

Daniela Teixeira, Paulo Oliveira, Vanda Lima


Developing a culture based on Quality leads to efficiency and organizational effectiveness. In the contemporary context, the Quality is considers the basis of success on the business environment, allowing to match the competitiveness and differentiation on the markets, as well as the requirements and expectations of employees / customers / consumers and all stakeholders. The main objective of the current study is to explore the existing conditions in an organization for further development/implementation of a Quality Management System, getting a general knowledge of its reality, with regard to the structure, function and “modus operandi”. Was created a check-list based on the requirements of NP EN ISO 9001: 2008, allowing to identify existing conditions and future needs the organization.

Preparação e desenvolvimento das medidas de autoproteção para uma instituição de ensino - Estudo de caso

Daniela Teixeira, Paulo Oliveira, Luisa Morgado, João Bastos, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Laranjeira, Miguel Lopes


The concern with Quality management started in Japan during the 50’s. Since then, the certification using the ISO 9000 series standard is considered by companies, as a tool that guaranties Quality for their products/services. The current project objective is the preparation and development of the documental support for a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the standard NP EN ISO 9001:2008, for further implementation in a producer company of industrial application components. For that purpose a check-list was created, based on the standard requirements, allowing to identify the existing conditions and development needs in the host company. With the information obtained using the check-list and direct observations of the company’s “modus operandi” “in loco”, the support documentation was developed suitable to its needs and in agreement with the standard requirements. Creating the support documentation is the first step for the implementation and respective continuous improvement process of QMS, leading to the certification of the company’s implemented System.

Prevenção na tunelação através do projeto

Manuel Tender, João Couto, Jorge Augusto Gago Gonçalves, Carlos Arévalo


Prevention through design phase implementation is one of the major concerns in recent years and not fully achieved due to several factors such as the lack of safety culture. In a first phase the article will expose a historical analysis of the subject. Subsequently it will exposed examples of good practices of the Project Owner and Designer and finally it will be given, for the two main underground excavation methods (TBM and NATM), some examples of design options that reflect a proper integration of prevention at this stage.

Trabalho Sustentável e Saúde - Um Estudo sobre Envelhecimento Ativo

Isabel Torres, Tânia Gaspar, Fátima Lobo


The aging workforce in the world, in a particular way in Europe, requires from policy makers and academia a new look at the work. The increasing retirement age that has been taking place in several countries, particularly in Portugal, poses new challenges with regard to the profiles of knowledge and competences of the workforce and, on the other hand, the work management. One of the most worrying dimensions that lie in aging issues, relates to the links between work and health. Two issues still seem to be difficult to answer: 1. in which health conditions are the oldest active in the last stage of their career? 2. Under what conditions the older will be working in the coming decades? The study presented here aimed to assess how workers who are in the last decade of their working life, that is, aged 55-65 years perceive their working conditions, psychosocial risks and its impact on their health. It was also the aim of this study to evaluate the perceptions of retired individuals aged 65 to 75 years, with regard to working conditions to which they were exposed in their last job and how these influenced their current health. Underlying these goals, it is looking for answers on active aging process and the factors that contribute to its promotion. For this purpose, it was used the COPSOQ II - Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (Kristensen & Borg, 2000) with 1330 individuals. The results show that the time pressure and the health assessment dimensions are analyzed in a more negative way by the totality of the respondents and significant differences on some of the dimensions, when we consider the gender, age and current employment status. Men and pensioners who are working are those that evaluate more positively the conditions under which develop their work. We conclude that, similarly to the literature in this area, there is a highly differentiated exposure to working conditions, particularly the age is mediated by these conditions (Volkoff, 2005).

Thumb Reach of Portuguese Young Adult When Interacting with a Touchscreen of One-Handed Device

Mahrus Khoirul Umami, Pedro Arezes, Álvaro M. Sampaio


The main purpose of this study was to identify the thumb reach envelope of Portuguese young adults for a one-handed device. The correlation between the thumb reach versus the hand length and thumb length was also analyzed. One hundred and forty-two Portuguese young adults participated in the study. The thumb reach envelope of Portuguese young adults was identified. The results of this study also found that people with a larger hand length and thumb length tend to have a larger thumb reach. However, few other factors, such as the way participants hold the mobile phone, participant’s experience with touchscreen device and possibility of misunderstood the instructions during the survey were suspected to influence the thumb reach envelope. The results of this study also showed the thumb reach area of participants is displaying elliptical shape that runs from top right to bottom left areas of the device screen.

Comparação entre métodos de gestão de riscos-MIAGR/Outros Métodos

Rui Veiga, Cristina Cadete Pires, Nuno Gomes


Professional risk management is a dynamic process which aims to eliminate or control risk factors and prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Risk management uses hazard identification methods, evaluation and control of risks that can be classified in deductive or inductive, proactive or reactive, qualitative or quantitative. This study applies two different methods by the same person, activity and analytical approach. The goal is to understand how these methods identifies risk factors and which control measures they use in order to establish the differences between the general method assessment and risk control, and the Integrated Risk Management Method Accompanied (MIAGR). The comparison of the results between the two methods shows a large discrepancy between the number of elements identified, namely preventive measures for risk management. After the data has been analyzed using descriptive statistics were extrapolated to the population through the inductive statistical. Statistically significant differences remained between the MIAGR and the other methods.

Improving Safety and Health in a Lean Logistic project: a case study in an automotive electronic components company

Sérgio Vicente, Anabela Alves, M. Sameiro Carvalho, Nelson Costa


Companies are looking for new ways to stay strong in the market. Lean Production (LP) is one of these ways that it is used to reduce waste and costs, but also to improve the involvement, safety and health conditions of the employees. This paper presents a project developed in one of the largest company of automotive electronic components. The project, took place in the inbound logistics area with the objective of improving the flows of raw materials. Main results include a greater efficiency of inbound logistics system as well as the improvement of the conditions of the operators, decreasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder. The method used to diagnose ergonomic conditions was the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. This paper shows how the implementation of the LP concepts, in this particular case Lean Logistic, can influence, not only the financial performance of a company but also improve the safety conditions of the operators as a need to reduce muri (physical strain or overburden).

Fungi occupational exposure assessment: a methodology to be followed for a more sound health effects discussion

Carla Viegas, Orlando Neves, Raquel Sabino, Susana Viegas


Health effects resulting from grain dust inhalation may be more strongly associated with specific microbial components, such as fungi, than to the dust. The aim of the present study is to characterize the occupational exposure to the fungal burden in one feed industry, presenting results from two air sampling methods – the impinger collector and the use of filters. In addition, the equipment used for the filter sampling method allowed a more accurate characterization regarding the dimension of the collected fungal particles (less than 2.5 μm size). Five air samples of 300L were collected. Simultaneously, an aerosol monitor (DustTrak II model 8532, TSI®) was used, aiming to assess the viable microbiological material below the 2.5 μm size. After sampling, filters were immersed in 300 mL of sterilized distilled water, agitated for 30 min at 100 rpm. 150 μl from the sterilized distilled water was subsequently spread onto malt extract agar (2%) with chloramphenicol (0.05 g/L). All plates were incubated at 27.5 ºC during 5–7 days. With the impinger method, the fungal load ranged from 0 to 54 CFU.m-3 and with the filter method, ranged from 0 to 34 CFU.m-3. Four different genera/species complex were isolated using the impinger method, being Penicillium the most found genus (66.7%). Geotrichum sp., Cladosporium sp. and species from section Fumigati were also found. Through filter assay, besides C. sitophila, Acremonium genus was the only fungus found. Obtained results were the expected since impinger method was collecting all the viable fungal material, whereas using the filters the same material was collected, but targeting only until 2.5 μm particle sizes.

Occupational exposure to fungi and mycotoxins in swine feed production: Data Review

Carla Viegas, Fabio Garcia, Luis Monteiro, Pedro Rodrigues, Sandra Henriques, Susana Viegas


Swine feed production workers are highly exposed to microorganisms and their by-products. These contaminants are easily accumulated and aerosolized in areas where feed is received, processed and packed for sale. An extensive search was made for scientific papers, in different online databases reporting fungi and mycotoxin contamination present on feed production facilities and the potential impact for workers. The most common fungi present on feed were Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp.. Regarding mycotoxins found on feed, Zearalenone and Aflotoxins were the most prevalent. Aflatoxin B1 was the most reported mycotoxin in feed production occupational environment. Prevention of fungi dissemination and, consequently, mycotoxins production in this setting should be avoid, since can result in mycotoxins exposure for workers and, even in some cases, for consumers.

Task-based approach importance for the occupational risk assessment - The case of particles exposure in feed industry

Daniela Teixeira, Paulo Oliveira, Luisa Morgado, João Bastos, Mário Rebelo, Paulo Laranjeira, Miguel Lopes


Introduction: Task-based exposure assessment approach recognizes that only through a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of tasks can control measures be correctly designed to reduce exposure. Working in the feed industry involves risks of exposure to grain dust and its microbial contents; possible leading to pathological symptoms and functional changes of the airways. Objective: The main goal of this research work was to demonstrate the importance and utility of task-based exposure assessment in occupational risk assessment and in the following exposure control interventions. Methodology: Exposure assessment was done by task using two different exposure metrics: particle mass concentration measured in 5 different sizes and particle number concentration based on results given in six different diameters sizes. The measurements were done with a direct-reading instrument and all the measurements were conducted continuously with the duration of 5 minutes near the workers nose and during each task performance. Results: Based on visual observations of work practices on a task-by-task basis, in the time spend by workers in each one, and in professional judgment six tasks were studied, namely: Materials reception in raw materials warehouse, feed bagging, production process control, handling pharmacy products, truck loading with final product and walking in finished product warehouse. Results showed that handling of pharmacy products was the task with higher values for both exposure metrics. Conclusions: Considering this we can assume that this exposure data give detail information to perform the risk assessment and allow to define the handling of pharmacy products the task with priority for control measures application.

Avaliação de Vibrações e Ruído de Baixa Frequência no Convés de Voo de uma Fragata

Luís Vitorino, Miguel Corticeiro Nevess


Vibroacoustic Disease is a nosological entity caused by excessive exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise. Past studies have shown an augmented deleterious effect when infrasound and low frequency noise exposure occurs concomitantly with whole-body vibration. The object of this report is to present the some results for an acoustical and vibrational study being conducted among Portuguese Navy aircraft maintenance personnel. The synergy between these physical agents, namely vibration and infrasound and low frequency noise, can lead to debilitating conditions within the setting of prolonged (in years) occupational exposures. Prior studies have shown that vibroacoustic disease can develop among aeronautical technicians occupationally exposed to infrasound and low frequency noise. Mood and behavioral disorders are among the first clinical signs observed among infrasound and low frequency noise exposed workers. Changes in memory and cognition soon follow. After 10+ years of occupational exposure, debilitating health conditions requiring extended leaves of absence develop. The present work aims to verify the noise and vibration conditions to which a group of flight deck frigate team is subject. To this end, are underway measurements of noise and vibrations in one Portuguese Frigate. The results show that there is no concern about vibrations, but about some frequencies that have high values of noise level must be done something. The follow of the symptoms presented by these mechanics is the first thing to do, in way to define what can be done, if these symptoms change.

Programas de Educação Auditiva e a Percepção de Risco por Trabalhadores Expostos ao Ruído

Ieda Claudia Wictor, Antonio Augusto de Paula Xavier, Ariel Orlei Michaloski


Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Noise exposure can cause several risks for the safety and health of workers, however the condition can be prevented by preventive measures. In many countries hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs) are mandatory, which are considered an effective means to prevent noise induced hearing loss. The awareness of the industry to keep noise control engineering programs, training programs inserted into an effective hearing conservation program is essential to protect the worker. The objective of this work is search about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions about hearing education programs, hearing protection devices and workers noise perception. This paper presents the systematic review about this topic, was reports in order to identify papers published in constant journals on databases with appropriate keywords combinations. It was conclude that studies about conservation program evaluation have been used in relatively few studies, mainly the relation with the effects of these programs on employees’ health and safety.

Time to re-evaluate responsibility of mine engineers in Turkey to obtain safer workplace environment

Gokay M.K., Shahriairi Mohammad


Mining operation in Turkey has been performed since early human history. Civilizations governing this fertile land in old times had several mines and especially metallic mines’ products were shipped to Egypt through Mediterranean ports. In those very old days there were surely very limited workplace safety rules. However in modern times, mining operations in Turkey have been regulated to be safer, so all the rules and related legislations have been implemented accordingly to obtain safer working environment in open and underground mines. Besides current mining law and regulatory rules, two big mine disasters were happened in Turkey in 2014. Total lost of life were 319 in these two disasters (Guguen, 2015, Akgul, 2015). There are official reports describing these accidents together with their explanations. In this paper however accident risk in mines and mine engineers' positions in mines were covered by coherent brief analyses. Responsibilities of mine engineers described in the mining law in Turkey. Due to engineering implication in mine operations some uncertainty cases appeared and they were discussed on the bases of authors experiences here.

Ambulatory Register of the Electrocardiogram

Camille Martins, Joaquim Pereira, Telmo Pereira, Jorge Conde, Helder Simões


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem all over the world, leading as a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Several modifiable or non-modifiable contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Anxiety and stress constitute important behavioral risk factors, and are often related with occupational contexts. Objectives: To evaluate the occupational exposition to stress in firefighters, and its relation with heart rhythm disturbances. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 11 firefighters (9 man and 2 women), with a mean age of 32.09 ± 15.27 years (age range: 18 – 61 years). One participant was under anti-hypertensive medication, while the remaining participants were clinically healthy. Participants were firefighters for a mean period of 12.18±11.91 years, ranging from 1 year to 35 years. Mean coffee ingestion during the working day was 2 ± 1 units. Heart rhythm was monitored during a regular working day, with a 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiogram device. Heart rhythm was analyzed with dedicated analyzing software, and collected data was compiled into a database for statistical processing. Results and Conclusions: No significant changes were depicted in mean heart rate during the working period, and over the different occupational scenarios that occurred in the overall analysis, nor in the individual one. Notwithstanding, an increase in heart rate variability, as expressed by the standard deviation of the mean (SD), was observed during the periods of greater stress induction (emergency moments), increasing from 82 ± 44 ms (prior to emergency call) to 111 ± 38 ms (during emergency assistance), stabilizing after the emergency service to 82 ± 38 ms (p=0.012, for trend). In two participants, isolated premature ventricular complexes were observed, increasing in quantity during the emergency situations. Conclusions: Occupational stress in firefighters produces greater heart rate variability, and induces greater electrical instability in more susceptible persons, increasing the absolute number of premature ventricular complexes during the high-stress moments. The cardiovascular response to occupational stress varies with age and working experience, being more intense in the younger workers when compared to more experienced ones, although a better adaptation to stress is still observed in the younger firefighters.

Mulheres na Aviação: Desordens ginecológicas

Edgard Martins, Isnard Martins


Many gynecological disorders happen with their effects on the ability to fly. Since 1784, personified by Elizabeth Thible using a Montgolfier balloon, in Lyon, France demonstrates that the woman will fly but she knew, probably, the general opinion at the time, that aviation was a male activity. Aviation science has evolved and many of the pioneering achievements of female aviation have been viewed with skepticism, contempt and intended as ridiculous. Men have invented many reasons that reflect a lack of knowledge of female anatomy, physiology and psychology to alienate women a more active participation in aviation. However, hundreds of women stood in aviation. A well-known aviation: the North American pilot Amelia Earhart. She becomes the first woman (and second person) to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean in her Lockheed Vega and the first person to cross the Atlantic twice by air.

Acessibilidade em Aeronaves - Este problema de ergonomia se perpetua

Edgard Martins, Isnard Martins


Develop housing projects, leisure and work has been a major feature in the specialized tasks of ergonomics. Some of the basic human characteristics are associated with the size and range of motion of various parts of your body. Ergonomics is aware of these features work in aircraft design and accommodation of passengers environments that have very different physical characteristics. Adopt adjustments solutions in aircraft seats exacerbates the challenge of responsibility to ergonomically design these complex artifacts. Not always the providences for accessibility are synchronized to safety. For example, the huge doors of access for large aircraft, designed for loading and unloading very fast loads, have caused situations where the lock is not perfect and therefore, there have been accidents. The design of many aircraft equipment uses the dimensions of the male human-being: life jackets, emergency exits, oxygen masks, snack service cart, bathroom sinks, belts and so on, because after all the human is its purpose. On-site installation of these devices, knowledge of the size, weight, users of the scale is needed to determine accessibility.

A Teoria da Informação e o uso da Tecnologia da Informação em Aeronaves

Edgard Martins, Isnard Martins


The human appropriates the guidance based on objects as paradigm, as a great solution when you need to understand a particular context or situation. He always had a great seduction by figures, icons, signs, objects and pictorial symbolism. The object-oriented patterns emerged in order to improve efficiency in the development and communication quality. This context brought benefits such as better training of associative meanings, extensibility and broader level of abstraction. These factors led to rapid and extensive use of pictographs in the new interfaces in control cabins (cockpit), for data persistence of object-oriented applications. The main idea of object orientation is to let the closer the operating world of the real world. Modern aircraft are increasingly adopting this indicative format for all types of object-oriented information to indicate procedures for pilots in aircraft cabins and across which information and actions need to be explained to the crew members.

Retrato Falado Automatizado Forense, a substituição do lapis pelo mouse

Isnard Martins, Edgard Martins


Studies on the technical limitations in computer applications for the production of graphic works has been the subject on discussions at art forums and academic forums. The boundaries between the real world and the virtual world are so close, that in many cases it becomes very difficult to identify their differences. This discussion also covers legal professionals about the validity of using automated tools for image production spoken for forensic purposes and authenticity of its results for forensic purposes. Often, we observe the dissemination of facial drawings sketches produced by manual process in newspapers and other electronic media, despite current advances in graphics software to support and production through automated processes. In this article we deepen the basis of this discussion to demonstrate how the automation evolution of this forensic tool is based on ergonomic principles necessary for measurement of critical processes used in building compositions produced through interviews and interactions

Convergência Digital, a aproximação do limite da Inteligência Computacional

Isnard Martins, Edgard Martins


New and sophisticated innovations are introduced in communication systems based on characteristics evolutions of technology. These new technologies work as a thread that integrates and disseminates the growing potential of human knowledge distributed and stored in digital media across the globe. The implications of digital convergence in economic and social everyday life of the contemporary world are profound. The economic organization of market for digital media industries fastest growing in the world begin to show changes and definition the trends of its models globally, using the Internet as a umbilical cord, as a common standard for transacting contents and messages in different available media formats. In this article we explore some of these digital limits of convergence and integration of the individual in world of changes that affect their behavior and social life.